The Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) is a baboon from the Old World monkey family. It is the northernmost of all the baboons. Its range extends from the Red Sea in Egypt to Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia. It also lives on the Arabian Peninsula. It is uncertain if humans introduced this population or not.
Apart from the striking size difference between the sexes males are often twice as large as females. This is common to all baboons. This species also shows sexual dimorphism in coloration. Males are silver-white colored and have a pronounced mane, while the females are mane less and brown. The face is colored red.
The Hamadryas baboon lives in semi-desert areas, grasslands and rocky areas. They require cliffs for sleeping and possibilities to drink water. It lives together in groups (so-called Harems) of Alpha males and up to 15 females, which the males lead and guard. Two to three groups unite repeatedly to form federations.
The Hamadryas baboon is omnivorous and is adapted to its relatively dry habitat. It is not discriminating in its search for food. It eats anything from grasses and roots to insects and vertebrates. Their natural enemies are lions and leopards.