The Desert Rat-kangaroo (Caloprymnus campestris), is an extinct marsupial that was native to Australia. It thrived in the driest, hottest and most desolate environments in Central Australia. The first sightings of the Desert Rat-kangaroo were in the early 1840s by Europeans and were not seen again for 90 years. The last recorded sighting of this marsupial was in 1935.
It was about the size of a small rabbit. It sheltered in a flimsy nest by day. At night, it emerged to feed. It lived alone and was so independent of water, that it even shunned the succulent plants of the sand hills. It was known to show great endurance at high speeds. It is said that in the last sighting, it was chased by three humans on horses for twelve miles nonstop, ending with the horses stopping in exhaustion and the Desert Rat-kangaroo escaping.