The Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), is the smallest of the rhino species. It also has the most fur of any other rhinos, which allows it to thrive at very high altitudes in Borneo and Sumatra. The Sumatran Rhinoceros once inhabited a continuous distribution as far north as Myanmar and eastern India; however poaching has made it extinct in Thailand and Vietnam, while it has not been seen in Cambodia, Laos or Myanmar for many years. Due to habitat loss and poaching, its numbers have declined and it is one of the world’s rarest mammals.
Sumatran Rhinoceroses were once quite numerous throughout Southeast Asia. Now only an estimated 300 individuals remain, almost all in Sundaland. It is critically endangered due to destruction of its rainforest habitat and illegal and unchecked poaching. In the past decade its population has dropped 50%. Most remaining habitat is in inaccessible mountainous areas of Indonesia, where the government has shown no inclination to discourage clearing of rhino habitat for the benefit of the timber industry.
Females become sexually mature at the age of 4-6 years, while males become sexually mature at 10 years old. Females only come into estrus when a male is nearby. The gestation period is around 400 days and the calf is weaned at 16-18 months and stays with the mother for 2-3 years. The birth interval for this species is 3-4 years.