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Bacteria

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a pathogenic bacterial species in the genus Mycobacterium and the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis. Robert Koch first discovered it in 1882 and that it had an unusual, waxy coating on the cell surface wh...

Mycobacterium smegmatis is 3.0 to 5.0 µm long with a bacillus shape, an acid-fast bacterial species in the phylum Actinobacteria. It can be stained by Ziehl-Neelsen method and the auramine-rhodamine fluorescent method. It was first reported in 1884....

Mycobacterium leprae, mostly found in warm tropical countries, is a bacterium that causes leprosy (Hansen's disease). It is an intracellular, pleomorphic, acid-fast bacterium. M. leprae is an aerobic rod-shaped surrounded by the characteristic waxy c...

Mycobacterium bovis is a slow-growing, aerobic bacterium and the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle. Similar to M. tuberculosis, M. bovis can jump the species barrier and cause tuberculosis in humans. It is estimated that M. bovis was respon...

Lactobacillus casei is a species of genus Lactobacillus found in the human intestine and mouth. Since it produces lactic acid it helps with the propagation of desirable bacteria. This species is documented to have a wide pH and temperature range. It al...

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, non-motile, encapsulated, lactose fermenting, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped bacterium found in the normal flora of the mouth, skin, and intestines. It is the most important member of the Klebsiella genus of...

Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that can inhabit various areas of the stomach, particularly the antrum. It causes low-level inflammation of the stomach lining and is linked to gastric ulcers and stomach cancer. Out of ...

Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium first described in 1892 by Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic. It is generally aerobic but can grow as a facultative anaerobe. H. influenzae was mistakenly considered to be the ...

Haemophilus ducreyi is a fastidious gram-negative coccobacillus causing the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, a major cause of genital ulceration in developing countries characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. Early symptoms are dark...

Gardnerella is a genus of gram-variable-staining facultative anaerobic bacteria of which G. vaginalis is the only species. It grows as small, circular, convex, gray colonies on chocolate agar. Colistin-oxolinic acid blood agar is a selective medium for...

Francisella tularensis is a pathogenic species of gram-negative bacteria and the causative agent of tularemia or rabbit fever. It is a facultative intracellular bacterium. It is classified as a Class A agent by the U.S. government due to its ease of sp...

Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Most strains are harmless; however, some such as O157:H7 can cause food poisoning in humans and are often responsible for ...

Enterococcus faecalis "“ formerly classified as part of the Group D Streptococcus system "“ is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. It is one of the main constituents of some probi...

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria. It was discovered in 1884. There are four subspecies C. diphtheriae mitis, C. diphtheriae intermedius, C. diphtheriae gravis, and C. diphtheriae belfanti. They all are a litt...

Clostridium tetani is a rod-shaped, anaerobic bacterium of the genus Clostridium. It's a gram-positive and resembles tennis rackets or drumsticks on a gram stain. It can be found as spores in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of animals. It produces ...

Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium of the genus Clostridium. It is always present in nature and is a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediment, the in...

Clostridium difficile, also known as "CDF/cdf", or "C. diff", is a Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Clostridium that causes severe diarrhea and other intestinal disease when competing bacteria in the gut flora are wiped out by antibiotics. They are ...

Clostridium botulinum is a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that produces neurotoxins, known as botulinum neurotoxins types A-G, that cause the flaccid muscular paralysis seen in botulism. It is the main paralytic agent in botox and is commonly foun...

Campylobacter jejuni is a species of curved, helical shaped, non-spore forming, Gram-negative microaerophilic, bacteria commonly found in animal feces. It is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world. This food poisoning can b...

Campylobacter fetus is a species of Gram-negative, motile bacteria with characteristic "S-shaped" rod morphology similar to members of the genus Vibrio. It is oxidase-positive like other members of the Campylobacter genus. C. fetus can cause aborti...