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Minerals

The term Chlorite can refer to the following meanings: - The chlorite group of clay minerals. - A Chlorite ion is a polyatomic anion consisting of an atom of chlorine and two oxygen atoms. Its chemical formula is ClO2-. The oxidation state of the...

Chromite, iron magnesium chromium oxide: (Fe,Mg)Cr2O4, is an oxide mineral belonging to the spinel group. Magnesium is always present in variable amounts, also aluminium and iron substitute for chromium. Chromite is found in peridotite and other lay...

Cinnabar (German Zinnober), sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red mercury(II) sulfide (HgS), or native vermilion, the common ore of mercury. The name comes from the Greek, used by Theophrastus, and was probably applied to several dist...

Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground either by underground mining, open-pit mining or strip mining. It is a readily combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock. It is composed primarily of carbon and hydrocarbons, along with assorte...

Cobalt is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Co and atomic number 27. Notable characteristics Cobalt is a hard ferromagnetic silver-white element. The Curie temperature is of 1388 K with 1.6~1.7 Bohr magnetons per atom. ...

Colemanite (Ca2B6O11·5H2O) is a borate mineral found in evaporite deposits. Colemanite is a secondary mineral that forms when borax is deposited, and then regularly covered with boron containing water. The boron remains after the water evaporates, a...

In geology, a conglomerate is a rock consisting of other stones that have been cemented together. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of subangular clasts and are thus differentiated from breccias, which consist of angular clasts. Both congl...

Copper is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. Notable characteristics Copper is a reddish-coloured metal, with a high electrical and thermal conductivity (among pure metals at room temperature, on...

Corundum is the crystalline form of aluminium oxide and one of the rock-forming minerals. Corundum is naturally clear, but can have different colors when impurities are added. Transparent specimens are used as gems, called ruby if red, while all other ...

Creedite is a calcium aluminium sulfate fluoro hydroxide mineral, Ca3Al2SO4(F,OH)10·2(H2O).

Cuprite is a mineral composed of copper(I) oxide Cu2O, and is an important ore of copper. Its dark crystals with red internal reflections are in the isometric system, appearing as cubic, octahedral, or dodecahedral forms, or in combinations, with a ...

Dioptase is an intense emerald-green to bluish-green copper cyclosilicate mineral. It is transparent to translucent. Its luster is vitreous to sub-adamantine. Its formula is CuSiO3·H2O (also reported as: CuSiO2(OH)2). It has a hardness of 5, the sam...

Diorite is a grey to dark grey intermediate intrusive igneous rock composed principally of plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine), hornblende, and/or pyroxene. Varieties deficient in hornblende and other dark minerals are called leucodiorite. It is ...

Dolomite is a mineral (formula CaMg(CO3)2) consisting of a calcium magnesium carbonate found in crystals and in beds as dolostone. A pure form of dolostone would be rare, however; it usually intergrades with limestone and is referred to as dolomitic li...

Gabbro is a dark, coarse-grained, intrusive igneous rock chemically equivalent to basalt. It is a plutonic rock, formed when molten magma is trapped beneath the Earth's surface and cools slowly into a hard, coarsely crystalline mass. It is dense, green...

Galena is a lead ore. This article describes Galena's mineral properties. In its chemically purified form, Galena is known as Lead Sulfide; refer to that article for chemical and industrial uses. Galena is one of the most abundant and widely distrib...

Garnierite is a mineral composed of hydrous nickel silicates a member of the serpentine group with formula: (Ni,Mg)3Si2O5(OH). Népouite is a synonym. Garnierite is important as a source of nickel and is mined from laterite deposits which are form...

The Garnet group of minerals show crystals with a habit of dodecahedrons and trapezohedrons. They are nesosilicates with the same general formula, A3B2(SiO4)3. The chemical elements in garnet include calcium, magnesium, aluminium, iron2+, iron3+, chrom...

Germanium is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. This is a lustrous, hard, silver-white, metalloid that is chemically similar to tin. Germanium forms a large number of organometallic compounds and is an...

Gneiss is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. Gneissic rocks are coarsely laminated and largely recrystal...