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Minerals

Molybdenite is a mineral of molybdenum disulfide, MoS2. Similar in appearance and feel to graphite, molybdenite has a lubricating effect which is produced by its structure of close-spaced parallel cleavage planes. Finely powdered MoS2, with particle si...

In geology, the mineral monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate containing rare earth metals and an important source of thorium, lanthanum, and cerium. It occurs usually in small isolated crystals. There are actually three different kinds of monazite, de...

Murdochite is a mineral combining lead and copper oxides. It was first discovered in 1953 in Arizona.

Muscovite, also known as potash mica, is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium. It has a highly perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably thin laminae (sheets), which are often highly elastic. Muscovite has a hardness of 2 - 2.25 and a s...

Orpiment is a common monoclinic crystalline mineral - Chemical Composition: As2S3, arsenic trisulfide - Molecular Weight: 246.04 gm - Hardness: 1.5-2 - Optical refractive index: Biaxial (-), a=2.4, b=2.81, g=3.02 Orpiment is a mineral th...

Pentlandite is a iron-nickel sulfide, (Fe,Ni)9S8. Pentlandite usually has a Ni:Fe ratio of close to 1:1. It also contains minor cobalt. Pentlandite forms isometric crystals, but is normally found in massive granular aggregates. It is brittle with a ...

Peridotite is a dense, coarse grained ultrabasic rock, consisting mainly of the minerals olivine and pyroxene. Peridotite is also a group of mantle derived igneous rocks. They all are ultramafic or ultrabasic meaning they contain less than 45% silica a...

Perlite is an amorphous glass mineral of volcanic origin. Typical analysis: 70-75% SiO2, 12-15% Al2O3, Na2O 3-4%, K2O 3-5%, Fe2O3 0,5-2%, MgO 0,2-0,7%, CaO 0,5-1,5% Loss On Ignition 3-5% Properties: When it reaches temperatures of 850"“900 °...

In chemistry, a phosphate is a polyatomic ion or radical consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen. In the ionic form, it carries a -3 formal charge, and is denoted PO43-. In a biochemical setting, a free phosphate ion in solution is called ...

Phyllite is a type of metamorphic rock primarily composed of quartz, sericite mica, and chlorite; the rock is intermediate in grade between slate and mica schist. Minute crystals of graphite, sericite, or chlorite impart a silky sheen to the surfaces o...

Pyrolusite is a mineral consisting essentially of manganese dioxide (Mn02) and is important as an ore of manganese. It is a soft, black, amorphous mineral, often with a granular, fibrous or columnar structure, sometimes forming reniform crusts. It has ...

Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's crust. It has a hexagonal crystal structure made of trigonal crystallized silica (silicon dioxide, SiO2), with a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale. Density is 2.6 g/cm³. The typical shape is a ...

Quartzite is a hard, metamorphic rock which was originally sandstone. Through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts, the original quartz sand grains and quartz silica cement were fused into one. Pure quartzi...

Platinum is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Pt and atomic number 78. A heavy, malleable, ductile, precious, gray-white transition metal, platinum is resistant to corrosion and occurs in some nickel and copper ores along wit...

Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) mixed with other potassium salts. Potash has been used since antiquity in the manufacture of glass and soap, and as a fertilizer. The name comes from the English words pot...

A rare earth is an oxide of a rare earth element. Often rare earth elements themselves are loosely called "rare earths". As to exactly what is a "rare earth" element is a matter of some ambiguity. The narrowest definition restricts it to the lanthanide...

Realgar is a mineral of arsenic sulfide, AsS. Realgar, orpiment, and arsenopyrite provide nearly all the world's supply of arsenic as a byproduct of smelting concentrates derived from these ores.

Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic (extrusive) rock, of felsic composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. Mineral assembly is usually quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase (in a ratio > 1:2). Biotite and pyroxene are common accessory minerals....

In chemistry, salt is a general term used for ionic compounds composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. These ions can be inorganic (Cl-) as well as organic (CH3-COO-)...

Sandstone is an arenaceous sedimentary rock composed mainly of feldspar and quartz and varies in colour (in a similar way to sand), through grey, yellow, red, and white. Since sandstones often form highly visible cliffs and other rock formations, certa...