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Space Science

Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion -- The astronomer Johannes Kepler's main contribution to astronomy was his three laws of planetary motion. Kepler found these laws empirically by studying extensive observations recorded by Tycho Brahe. He found th...

Lagrangian Point -- In Lagrangian mechanics, a Lagrangian point (or L-point) is one of five positions in space where the gravitational fields of two bodies of substantial but differing mass combine to form a point at which a third body of negligible ma...

Large-Scale Structure of the Cosmos -- Stars are organised into galaxies which in turn appear to form clusters and superclusters, separated by voids. Prior to 1989 it was commonly assumed that the superclusters were the largest structures in existe...

M-Theory -- 'M-Theory' is the name of the unknown theory of everything which would combine all five Superstring theories and the Supergravity at 11 dimensions together. The theory requires mathematical tools which have yet to be invented in order t...

Panspermia -- Panspermia is a theory (more directly described as a hypothesis, as there is no compelling evidence yet available to support or contradict it) that suggests that the seeds of life are prevalent throughout the universe and life on Earth be...

Retrograde Motion -- Retrograde motion is the orbital motion of a body in a direction opposite that which is normal to spatial bodies within a given system. 'Retrograde' derives from the Latin words retro, backwards, and gradus, step. In the Solar ...

Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) -- SETI (pronounced SEH-tee) stands for for Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence. Interstellar travel is a common theme in science fiction stories, but the obstacles to such journeys are in prac...

Xenobiology -- Xenobiology (or exobiology, or astrobiology) is the term for a speculative field within biology which considers the possibility of, and possible nature of, extraterrestrial life. It also necessarily includes the concept of artificial...

String Theory -- A string theory is a physical model whose fundamental building blocks are extended objects (strings, membranes and higher-dimensional objects) rather than points. String theories are able to avoid problems, such as infinite energy ...

Terraforming -- Terraforming (literally, "Earth-shaping") is the process of modifying a planet, moon or other body to a more habitable atmosphere, temperature or ecology. The term was first used in a science fiction novel, 'Seetee Shock' (1940?) by...