Engenheiros Especializados S/A (Engesa) was a manufacturer of military trucks, armored fighting vehicles and civilian sport-utility vehicles located in Brazil from 1963 to 1993.
In 1963, Engesa began as a private company installing all-wheel-drive systems in existing commercial trucks, rebuilt, adapted and updated armored vehicles and tanks from World War II which the Brazilian Army owned.
The headquarters for Engesa started in Avenida Liberdade, Sao Paulo but moved to Avenida Das Nacoes Unidas, in 1975, then moved again to Barueri in 1985. The main production facility was in Sao Jose dos Campos.
Engesa also had subsidiary companies under them, including Engesa Electronics, (Brazilian Phillips) and National Rail Car Factory.
In the 1980s, over 5000 employees made up the Engesa company and by 1993 had produced 3,300 armored vehicles. Vehicles and other products were also exported to 37 other countries.
In October 1993, Engesa declared bankruptcy from financial losses in Iraq and lack of sales from their EE-T1 Osorio tank. In 2001, the production factory was sold to Embraer.
Models built were the EE-3 reconnaissance vehicle; EE-9 armored car; EE-11 armored personnel carrier; EE-15, EE-25, and EE-50 trucks; EE-4, EE-12, and EE-34 light vehicles; EE-T4 air-portable armored vehicle; EE-17 and EE-18 tank destroyers; and the vehicle that led to the companies closing the EE-T1 battle tank.
The EE-9 and EE-11 were heavily used by the Iraqi Armed Forces from 1980 to 1988 during the Iraq-Iran war.
Image Caption: EE-9 Cascavel, used in the Iraq-Iran war from 1980 to 1988. Credit: Endurcastro28/Wikipedia (public domain)