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Last updated on April 20, 2014 at 14:04 EDT

Astrobiology Glossary N – Space

Term Definition
National Aeronautics And Space Administration (NASA) A Federal agency created on July 29, 1958 after President Dwight Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958. NASA coordinates space exploration efforts as well as traditional aeronautical research functions.
Natural Selection The process in nature by which, according to Darwin’s theory of evolution, only the organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and transmit their genetic characters in increasing numbers to succeeding generations while those less adapted tend to be eliminated.
Near Infrared Camera And Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) An instrument that sees objects in near-infrared wavelengths, which are slightly longer than the wavelengths of visible light. (Human eyes cannot see infrared light.) NICMOS is actually three cameras in one, each with different fields of view. Many secrets about the birth of stars, solar systems, and galaxies are revealed in infrared light, which can penetrate the interstellar gas and dust that blocks visible light. In addition, light from the most distant objects in the universe ‘shifts’ into infrared wavelengths due to the universe’s expansion. By studying objects and phenomena in this spectral region, astronomers probe our universe’s past, present, and future; and learn how galaxies, stars, and planetary systems form. Astronauts installed NICMOS aboard the Hubble Space Telescope in February 1997 during the Second Servicing Mission.
Near-Infrared The region of the infrared spectrum that is closest to visible light. Near-infrared light has slightly longer wavelengths and slightly lower frequencies and energies than visible light.
Nebular Theory The idea that our solar system originated in a contracting, rotating cloud of gas that flattened to form a disk as it contracted. According to this theory, the Sun formed at the center of the disk and the planets formed in concentric bands of the disk.
Neptune The eighth planet and the most distant giant gaseous planet in our solar system. The planet is 30 times the Earth’s distance from the Sun, and each orbit takes 165 Earth years. Neptune is the fourth largest planet and has at least eight moons, the largest of which is Triton. Neptune has a ring system, just like all the giant gaseous outer planets.
Neutrino A neutral, weakly interacting elementary particle having a very tiny mass. Stars like the Sun produce more than 200 trillion trillion trillion neutrinos every second. Neutrinos from the Sun interact so weakly with other matter that they pass straight through the Earth as if it weren’t there.
Neutrino Detector A device designed to detect neutrinos.
Neutron A neutral (no electric charge) elementary particle having slightly more mass than a proton and residing in the nucleus of all atoms other than hydrogen.
Neutron Star An extremely compact ball of neutrons created from the central core of a star that collapsed under gravity during a supernova explosion. Neutron stars are extremely dense: they are only 10 kilometers or so in size, but have the mass of an average star (usually about 1.5 times more massive than our Sun). A neutron star that regularly emits pulses of radiation is known as a pulsar.
Nilas A thin (up to 10 centimeters) elastic crust of ice that easily bends on waves. Under pressure they form a pattern of interlocking “fingers” (finger rafting).
Non-Thermal Radiation Radiation that is not produced from heat energy – for example, radiation released when a very fast-moving charged particle (such as an electron) interacts with a magnetic force field. Because the electron’s velocity in this case is not related to the gas temperature, this process has nothing to do with heat.
North Celestial Pole (NCP) A direction determined by the projection of the Earth’s North Pole onto the celestial sphere. It corresponds to a declination of +90 degrees. The North Star, Polaris, sits roughly at the NCP.
Nova A binary star system (consisting of a white dwarf and a companion star) that rapidly brightens, then slowly fades back to normal.
Nuclear Transformation The process by which an atomic nucleus is transformed into another type of atomic nucleus. For example, by removing an alpha particle from the nucleus, the element radium is transformed into the element radon.
Nucleic Acid The molecules which carry genetic information, DNA and RNA.