This image was captured by the MODIS on the Terra satellite on November 12, 2007. Central to the image is the country of Afghanistan. Afghanistan is a land-locked and mountainous country in central Asia, with plains in the north and southwest. To give you a sense of scale, this country is slightly smaller than the state of Texas.
It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan in the north, and China in the far northeast. The Hindu Kush mountains, visible on the right side of the image, run through Afghanistan and Pakistan.