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A strong eruption in 2001 transformed much of the caldera
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A strong eruption in 2001 transformed much of the caldera

June 9, 2010
A strong eruption in 2001 transformed much of the caldera (the circular depression on the summit of the volcano) of Papandayan in west Java, Indonesia, into a moon-like landscape. Deposits of block and ash flows cover the ground and are deeply cut by erosion from rainwater. Violently steaming fumaroles--vents or openings that emit steam, hydrogen sulfide or other gases from beneath the earth's surface--produce steam plumes, some of which are several hundred meters high, in the crater walls near the eruption site. (Date of Image: August 2004)


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