May 6, 2014
(11 Jan. 2011) --- Emi Koussi volcano in Chad is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 26 crew member on the International Space Station. The large Emi Koussi volcano is located in northern Chad at the southeastern end of the Tibesti Range. The dark volcanic rocks of the volcano provide a sharp contrast to the underlying tan and light brown sandstones exposed to the west, south, and east. Emi Koussi is a shield volcano formed from relatively low viscosity lavas-flowing more like motor oil as opposed to toothpaste-and explosively-erupted ignimbrites that produce a characteristic low and broad structure that covers a wide area (approximately 60 x 80 kilometers). This photograph highlights the entire volcanic structure; at 3,415 meters above sea level, Emi Koussi is the highest summit of the Sahara region. The summit area contains three calderas formed by powerful eruptions. Two older, and overlapping, calderas form a depression approximately 12 x 15 kilometers in area bounded by a distinct rim (center). According to scientists, the youngest and smallest caldera, Era Kohor, formed as a result of eruptive activity that occurred within the past 2 million years. Young volcanic features including lava flows and scoria cones are also thought to be less than 2 million years old. There are no historical records of eruptive activity at Emi Koussi, but there is an active thermal area on the southern flank of the volcano.
Topics: Environment, Volcanism, Volcanology, Geology, Emi Koussi, Tibesti Mountains, Shield volcano, Stratovolcanoes, Caldera, Types of volcanic eruptions, Igneous rocks, Volcano, Plate tectonics