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Outlook Positive for Manganese Producers

February 1, 2012

LONDON, February 1, 2012 /PRNewswire/ –

Manganese: Global industry markets and outlook, 2012 (12th Edition)

At the end of 2011, market conditions for manganese products were relatively weak,
with a large stockpile of ore at Chinese ports, and poor demand for steel long products.
Underlying these factors specific to manganese were low business confidence and economic
uncertainty, particularly in Europe and the USA, arising in part from the Eurozone debt
crisis.

In the longer term, the direction of manganese prices will depend on a combination of
economic growth in the industrialised world, and continued expansion of industrialising
and emerging economies in Asia and South America. Recovery, particularly of the
construction industries in Europe and North America, could lead to a firming of manganese
ferroalloy prices in 2013 and beyond. This, coupled with continued infrastructural growth
in China, India and elsewhere in Asia, should result in secure markets and rising prices
for manganese. Expansion of Asian automobile industries will also stimulate manganese
prices.

Steel production to remain primary use for manganese

Used to impart strength and remove sulphur, the use of manganese in the production of
steel will remain the largest end-use. In 2010-11, approximately 90% of total manganese
consumption was within the steel industry.

Manganese is an essential constituent in iron and steel and has no satisfactory
substitute in this application. In 2011, the unit consumption was 8kg Mn/t of steel,
although changes in steelmaking processes and practices have gradually reduced the
intensity of use. Over the next five years, the rise in steel production will lead to an
increase in manganese consumption, with an annual average growth rate of 6% over the next
five years, with China and India providing the main impetus for this growth.

Although steel production will remain the largest end-use for manganese, other areas
of growth are of interest.

Global demand for manganese in batteries has been relatively stable at about 300ktpy.
This has mainly been accounted for by zinc and alkaline primary batteries, but demand for
manganese in rechargeable batteries has risen in recent years. Demand for manganese for
primary batteries is likely to show some growth, particularly for lithium and alkaline
batteries in China and south Asian countries. But in Japan, Europe and North America
future demand for manganese in primary batteries is likely to be relatively flat, whereas
use of manganese for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries) secondary batteries will rise
strongly.

Overall, total demand for manganese is expected to increase by around 6% per year over
the next five years.

New capacity will enter the market to supply ever growing appetites

As demand for manganese continues rising, new supply will be required to enter the
market to satisfy requirements. Some 10Mtpy (gross weight ore) of new manganese mining
capacity is planned, mainly in South Africa where three mining projects with a total
output of 6.3Mtpy of saleable ore or sinter are planned. The first on stream is likely to
be the 2.4Mtpy Kalagadi project.

About 2.3Mtpy of manganese ferroalloy (including Mn-rich slag) projects were being
planned in 2011. The largest of these was the 320ktpy Kalagadi installation, which is
scheduled to start up in the second half of 2012 at Coega in the Eastern Cape of South
Africa.

In China the electrolytic manganese metal (EMM) industry is being restructured which
will result in fewer, larger operations. Some 30 EMM producers with capacities of more
than 30ktpy are scheduled to be built from 2011 to 2015. Since 2004, some 450ktpy of small
scale EMM capacity has been eliminated in an effort to modernise the industry.

Power restrictions and a return of global economic growth will provide impetus for
manganese prices

At the end of 2011, market conditions for manganese products were relatively weak,
with a large stockpile of ore at Chinese ports, and the restart of silicomanganese
smelters in China as power restrictions were eased.

In the coming years, the direction of manganese prices will depend on a combination of
economic growth in the industrialised world, and continued expansion of industrialising
and emerging economies in Asia and South America. Recovery, particularly of the
construction industries in Europe and North America, could lead to a firming of manganese
ferroalloy prices in 2013 and beyond.

Existing and projected manganese ferroalloy capacity in the main producing countries
(China, India, South Africa, Ukraine and Norway) appears adequate in the medium term, but
recurring power restrictions and industry restructuring in China could lead to further
short term supply limitations. However, prices are on the whole expected to increase from
2011 levels, potentially rising by around 20% over the next five years.

Note to editors

The report contains 308 pages, 162 tables and 86 figures. It provides a detailed
review of the industry, with subsections on the activities of the leading producing
companies. It also analyses consumption, trade and prices.

        Summary
        1.1       Production and new projects
        1.2       Consumption
        1.3       Prices
        2         History, properties, occurrence and resources of manganese
        2.1       History
        2.2       Properties of manganese
        2.3       Occurrence of manganese
        2.3.1     Manganese minerals
        2.3.2     Types of manganese deposits
        2.4       Global manganese resources
        2.4.1     Ocean nodules
        3         Mining, processing and refining of manganese
        3.1       Manganese ore mining
        3.2       Manganese ore processing
        3.2.1     Manganese ore production costs
        3.3       Manganese smelting and refining
        3.3.1     Manganese ferroalloys
        3.3.1.1   High-carbon ferromanganese
        3.3.1.2   Medium-carbon and low-carbon (refined) ferromanganese
        3.3.1.3   Silicomanganese
        3.3.1.4   Manganese ferroalloy production costs
        3.3.2     Electrolytic manganese metal (EMM)
        3.3.3     Manganese dioxide
        3.3.4     Manganese chemicals
        3.3.5     Manganese recycling
        4         Overview of world manganese production
        4.1       World mine production of manganese
        4.1.1     Production of manganese ore (gross weight)
        4.1.2     Production of manganese ore (manganese content)
        4.1.3     Manganese mining companies
        4.2       Production of manganese ferroalloys
        4.2.1     Producers of manganese ferroalloys
        4.3       Production of manganese metal
        4.4       Production of electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD)
        4.5       New manganese mining, ferroalloy and EMM projects
        5         Manganese mining and processing by country
        5.1       Argentina
        5.2       Australia
        5.2.1     Manganese resources
        5.2.2     Producers of manganese ore in Australia
        5.2.2.1   Groote Eylandt Mining Co. Pty. Ltd. (Gemco)
        5.2.2.2   Consolidated Minerals Ltd. (Consmin)
        5.2.2.3   OM Holdings Ltd. (OMH)
        5.2.2.4   Process Minerals International (PMI)
        5.2.2.5   Hancock Prospecting/PMI - Nicholas Downs
        5.2.3     Manganese exploration projects
        5.2.3.1   Ant Hill - Auvex Resources/Mesa Minerals
        5.2.3.2   Shaw River Manganese
        5.2.3.3   Spitfire Resources
        5.2.3.4   Jupiter Mines
        5.2.3.5   Montezuma Mining Company
        5.2.3.6   Other manganese exploration projects
        5.2.4     Manganese processing in Australia
        5.2.4.1   Tasmanian Electro-Metallurgical Co. Pty. Ltd. (Temco)
        5.3       Austria
        5.4       Bahrain
        5.5       Belgium
        5.6       Bosnia and Herzegovina
        5.7       Brazil
        5.7.1     Resources
        5.7.2     Producers of manganese ore in Brazil
        5.7.2.1   Vale SA
        5.7.2.2   Mineração Buritirama SA
        5.7.2.3   Ribeirão Manganese project
        5.7.3     Producers of manganese ferroalloys in Brazil
        5.7.3.1   Vale Manganes
        5.7.3.2   Other producers
        5.8       Bulgaria
        5.8.1     Euromangan AD
        5.9       Burkina Faso
        5.1       Canada
        5.10.1    Buchans Minerals
        5.10.2    Other manganese properties
        5.11      Chile
        5.12      China
        5.12.1    Resources
        5.12.2    Mining
        5.12.2.1  CITIC Dameng Mining Industries
        5.12.2.2  Hubei Changyang Hongxin Industry Group
        5.12.2.3  Yunnan Wenshan Dounan Manganese
        5.12.3    Production of manganese ferroalloys
        5.12.4    Production of manganese metal
        5.12.5    Production of manganese dioxide
        5.13      Congo
        5.14      Costa Rica
        5.15      Egypt
        5.16      France
        5.16.1    Eramet Comilog Manganese
        5.16.2    Vale Manganèse France
        5.17      Gabon
        5.17.1.1  Compagnie Minière de l'Ogooué (Comilog)
        5.17.1.2  Manganese exploration projects
        5.18      Georgia
        5.18.1    Georgian Manganese LLC
        5.19      Germany
        5.2       Ghana
        5.20.1    Ghana Manganese Company
        5.20.2    Shaw River Manganese - Butre Project
        5.21      Greece
        5.22      Guyana
        5.23      Hungary
        5.24      India
        5.24.1    Resources
        5.24.2    Mine production
        5.24.2.1  MOIL
        5.24.2.2  Tata Iron & Steel
        5.24.2.3  Sandur Manganese and Iron Ore Ltd. (Sandur)
        5.24.2.4  Mangilall Rungta
        5.24.2.5  Orissa Mining Corp
        5.24.2.6  Orissa Manganese & Minerals
        5.24.3    Producers of manganese ferroalloys in India
        5.24.3.1  Amit Ferro-Alloys & Steels
        5.24.3.2  Baheti Metals and Ferroalloys Ltd.
        5.24.3.3  Balasore Alloys
        5.24.3.4  BMA Group
        5.24.3.5  Chhattisgarh Electricity Co. Ltd.
        5.24.3.6  Corporate Ispat Alloys Limited (CIAL)
        5.24.3.7  Ferroalloys Corp. (Facor)
        5.24.3.8  Hira Ferro Alloys Ltd.
        5.24.3.9  Jindal Group
        5.24.3.10 Karthik Alloys Ltd.
        5.24.3.11 Maharashtra Elektrosmelt Ltd. (MEL)
        5.24.3.12 MOIL
        5.24.3.13 Nav Bharat Ventures Ltd. (NBV)
        5.24.3.14 Rohit Ferro Tech
        5.24.3.15 Sandur Manganese and Iron Ore Ltd.
        5.24.3.16 Shree Ganesh Metalloy
        5.24.3.17 Sova Ispat Group
        5.24.3.18 Srinivasa Ferroalloys Ltd.
        5.24.3.19 Tanushree Inspat
        5.24.3.20 Tata Iron & Steel
        5.24.3.21 Universal Ferro and Allied Chemicals Ltd.
        5.25      Indonesia
        5.26      Iran
        5.26.1    Iran Manganese Mines
        5.26.2    Manganese ferroalloy production
        5.27      Italy
        5.28      Ivory Coast
        5.29      Japan
        5.29.1    Producers of manganese ferroalloys in Japan
        5.29.1.1  Chuo Denki Kogyo Co. Ltd.
        5.29.1.2  Kobe Steel
        5.29.1.3  Mizushima Ferroalloy Co. Ltd.
        5.29.1.4  Nippon Denko
        5.29.2    EMD production
        5.3       Kazakhstan
        5.30.1    Mining
        5.30.1.1  Eurasian Natural Resources Corp (ENRC)
        5.30.1.2  JSC Atasuruda
        5.30.1.3  Alash
        5.30.2    Production of manganese ferroalloys
        5.30.2.1  Aksu ferroalloy plant
        5.30.2.2  Temirtau Electrometallurgical Complex
        5.30.2.3  Taraz Metallurgical Plant
        5.30.2.4  ThyssenKrupp/Electro Manganese
        5.31      South Korea
        5.31.1    Dongbu Metal Co
        5.31.2    Samjung P&A
        5.31.3    Simpac Metalloy
        5.32      Macedonia
        5.33      Malaysia
        5.34      Mexico
        5.34.1    Minera Autlán
        5.34.2    Eramet Mexico
        5.34.3    Potential mine production
        5.35      Morocco
        5.36      Myanmar
        5.37      Namibia
        5.37.1    Purity Manganese
        5.37.2    Shaw River - Otjozondu Manganese Project
        5.38      Norway
        5.38.1    Producers of manganese ferroalloys in Norway
        5.38.1.1  Eramet A/S
        5.38.1.2  Vale Manganese Norway AS
        5.39      Paraguay
        5.4       Peru
        5.41      Poland
        5.41.1    Producers of manganese ferroalloys in Poland
        5.41.1.1  Huta Aaziska
        5.41.1.2  Stalmag
        5.42      Romania
        5.43      Russia
        5.43.1    Siberian Metallurgical Company
        5.43.2    Other manganese mining projects
        5.43.3    Producers of manganese ferroalloys
        5.44      Saudi Arabia
        5.45      Slovakia
        5.45.1    Oravské Ferozliatinárske Závody (OFZ)
        5.46      South Africa
        5.46.1    Manganese resources
        5.46.2    Production
        5.46.2.1  Assmang Ltd.
        5.46.2.2  Samancor Manganese
        5.46.2.3  Transalloys
        5.46.2.4  Mogale Alloys
        5.46.2.5  United Manganese of Kalahari (UMK)
        5.46.2.6  Kalagadi Manganese
        5.46.2.7  Tshipi Manganese Mining
        5.46.2.8  Other
        5.46.3    Producers of manganese metal and chemicals
        5.47      Spain
        5.47.1.1  FerroAtlántica SA
        5.48      Turkey
        5.49      Ukraine
        5.49.1    Privat Group
        5.49.1.1  Mining
        5.49.1.2  Manganese ferroalloys
        5.49.2    Past producers of ore and ferroalloys
        5.5       USA
        5.50.1    Mining
        5.50.2    Producers of manganese ferroalloys in the USA
        5.50.2.1  Eramet Marietta
        5.50.2.2  Felman Production Inc.
        5.50.2.3  Bateman Mineral Recovery
        5.50.3    EMD producers
        5.50.3.1  Erachem Comilog
        5.50.3.2  Eveready Battery Co.
        5.50.3.3  Tronox Inc.
        5.50.4    National Defense Stockpile
        5.51      Venezuela
        5.52      Vietnam
        5.53      Zambia
        6         Overview of world manganese consumption
        6.1       Consumption of manganese ore
        6.1.1     Consumption of manganese ore by product
        6.2       Consumption of manganese ferroalloys
        6.2.1     Consumption of manganese ferroalloys by use
        6.3       Consumption of manganese metal (EMM)
        6.3.1     Consumption of electrolytic manganese metal by use
        7         Uses of manganese
        7.1       Use of manganese in iron and steel production
        7.1.1     Use of manganese in pig iron production
        7.1.1.1   Pig iron production
        7.1.2     Use of manganese in crude steel
        7.1.2.1   Manganese ferroalloys used
        7.1.2.2   Steelmaking processes
        7.1.3     Crude steel production
        7.1.4     Carbon steels
        7.1.4.1   Transportation markets
        7.1.4.2   Construction markets
        7.1.4.3   Other markets for carbon steels
        7.1.5     Alloy engineering steels
        7.1.5.1   Full alloy steels
        7.1.5.2   HSLA steels
        7.1.6     Tool and high speed steels
        7.1.6.1   Hot-work tool/die and valve steels
        7.1.6.2   Cold-work tool steels
        7.1.6.3   Carbon tool steels
        7.1.7     Stainless steel
        7.1.7.1   Types of stainless steel
        7.1.7.2   Uses of stainless steel
        7.1.7.3   Production of stainless steel
        7.1.8     Use of manganese in cast iron
        7.1.8.1   Production of cast irons
        7.1.8.2   Metallurgy and applications of cast irons
        7.2       Use of manganese in non-ferrous alloys
        7.2.1     Aluminium alloys
        7.2.2     Copper alloys
        7.2.2.1   Other non-ferrous alloys
        7.2.3     Superalloys
        7.2.4     Other non-steel alloys
        7.3       Use of manganese in batteries
        7.3.1     Types of batteries
        7.3.1.1   Primary batteries
        7.3.1.2   Secondary (rechargeable) batteries
        7.3.2     Production of batteries
        7.4       Other uses for manganese
        7.4.1     Colourants and pigments
        7.4.1.1   Bricks and tiles
        7.4.1.2   Frits
        7.4.1.3   Glazes
        7.4.1.4   Glass
        7.4.1.5   Pigments
        7.4.1.6   Tumbling media
        7.4.2     Ferrites
        7.4.3     Welding fluxes
        7.4.4     Agriculture
        7.4.4.1   Animal feeds
        7.4.4.2   Fertilisers
        7.4.5     Water treatment
        7.4.5.1   Manganese ore
        7.4.5.2   Potassium permanganate
        7.4.6     Hydrometallurgy
        7.4.6.1   Zinc processing
        7.4.6.2   Uranium processing
        7.4.6.3   Other uses
        7.4.7     Fuel additives
        7.4.8     Oxidising agents
        7.4.9     Odour control
        7.4.10    Catalysts
        7.4.11    Sealants
        7.4.12    Metal coating
        7.4.13    Circuit boards
        7.4.14    Sulphur dioxide removal
        7.4.15    Hydroquinone production
        7.4.16    Other minor uses
        8         Outlook for manganese demand to 2016
        8.1       Outlook for manganese demand in iron and steel
        8.1.1     Outlook for manganese demand in stainless steel
        8.2       Outlook for manganese demand in non-ferrous alloys
        8.3       Outlook for manganese demand in batteries
        9         Analysis of manganese international trade data
        9.1       International trade in manganese ore
        9.1.1     Exports
        9.2       Imports
        9.3       International trade in silicomanganese
        9.3.1     Exports
        9.3.2     Imports
        9.4       International trade in high carbon ferromanganese
        9.4.1     Exports
        9.4.2     Imports
        9.5       International trade in refined ferromanganese
        9.5.1     Exports
        9.5.2     Imports
        9.6       International trade in manganese metal
        9.6.1     Exports
        9.6.2     Imports
        9.7       International trade in manganese dioxide
        9.7.1     Exports
        9.7.2     Imports
        10        Manganese marketing and prices
        10.1      Prices of manganese ore and concentrates
        10.2      Prices of manganese ferroalloys
        10.3      Prices of manganese metal
        10.4      Prices of manganese dioxide
        10.5      Outlook for prices of manganese

Manganese: Global industry markets and outlook, 12th Edition, 2012 is available at
GBP3300 / US$5400 / EUR4600 from Roskill Information Services Ltd, 54 Russell Road, London
SW19 1QL ENGLAND. Tel: +44-20-8417-0087. Fax +44-20-8417-1308 Email:
info@roskill.co.uk Web: http://www.roskill.com/manganese

For further information on this report, please contact Judith Chegwidden
(judith@roskill.co.uk). To be added to our press distribution list, please contact
Prakash Ramachandran (prakash@roskill.co.uk).

SOURCE Roskill Information Services


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