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Roskill: Changing Market Demand Presents Opportunities for New Flake Graphite Supply

October 29, 2012

LONDON, October 29, 2012 /PRNewswire/ –

Natural & Synthetic Graphite: Global Industry Markets and Outlook (8th edition, 2012)

Demand for natural graphite is shifting from amorphous to flake and synthetic
graphite, particularly for large flake and high-purity grades. Emerging applications such
as batteries and flexible graphite products are requiring higher performance and
speciality products. To meet these new challenges, flake graphite production will increase
outside China as new capacity is brought on-line over the next five years.

New flake supply expected from Canada

Over 70 flake graphite projects are under development outside China, which in total
have the potential to add 200,000tpy to global capacity by 2016. Around a quarter of this
capacity could be in Canada, where more than 40 flake graphite projects are being
investigated, many at an early exploration stage. Other potential new sources include
Australia, Brazil, and Sweden.

Amorphous recovery in China

World natural graphite production is growing and is now split into 55% flake and 45%
amorphous output. This latest report from Roskill details how China is still the world’s
largest producer of natural graphite, both amorphous and flake, representing 70% of supply
in 2011. Production in China in 2012 is recovering from lower levels in 2011, as amorphous
graphite mines come back on stream, following some closures and consolidation in Hunan.

Synthetic graphite output growing

Synthetic graphite production is also increasing for use in specialist applications.
By 2011, production of primary synthetic graphite reached an estimated 1.5Mt. The largest
tonnages come from the graphite electrode manufacturers, with eight major producers
worldwide. Markets such as electrodes, recarburisers and shapes are all forecast to grow
through to 2016. Carbon fibre, a high value market, is also expanding, as producers target
the replacement of steel in aerospace and automotive applications.

Traditional markets and Li-ion batteries driving demand growth

Demand for natural flake graphite will continue to be driven by growth in
refractories, which accounted for nearly 60% of flake consumption in 2011. Meanwhile,
synthetic graphite consumption will rise on the back of increased electrode manufacture,
which represents just over half of synthetic graphite demand by volume. Lithium-ion
battery anodes are an emerging market that provides one of the few platforms for natural
and synthetic graphite to compete. Consumption of graphite in batteries is expected to
grow rapidly at 10-12%py to 2016.

World pricing and trade led by China

For many years, China has led the way for international trade and pricing, as
consumers looked to take advantage of competitively priced raw materials and this trend
looks set to continue, at least in the short-term. Chinese graphite prices are expected to
soften going into 2013 following reduced demand from its main markets and lower than
expected economic growth in China.

In the longer term, Chinese export prices are expected to rise as the country
continues to consolidate its natural graphite industry and adds value with domestically
manufactured downstream products. This may result in less material available for exports.
At the same time, rising costs of labour and environmental regulations, coupled with
increasing mining overheads as more accessible reserves become exhausted, are adding to
upward pricing pressures. This could result in consumers looking to purchase elsewhere and
result in a shift in traditional purchasing patterns.

Natural & Synthetic Graphite: Global Industry Markets and Outlook, 8th Edition, 2012
is available at GBP3500 / US$5800 / EUR4600 from Roskill Information Services Ltd, 54
Russell Road, London SW19 1QL ENGLAND. Tel: +44-20-8417-0087. Fax +44-20-8417-1308 Email:
info@roskill.co.uk Web: http://www.roskill.com/graphite

ENDS

Note to editors

The report contains 413 pages, 194 tables and 120 figures. It provides a detailed
review of the industry, with subsections on the activities of the leading producing
companies. It also analyses consumption, trade and prices.

For further information on this report, please contact Alison Saxby (
asaxby@roskill.co.uk). To receive information on reports and other services, please
contact Isobel Jarvis (isobel@roskill.co.uk).

Roskill is a London based and privately-owned company, with more than 40 years of
experience of publishing reports on industrial minerals, steel alloys, and minor & light
metals, including 40 different market reports and newsletters. Roskill also offers
specialised consultancy services.

Table of Contents

Page

1. Summary 1

1.1 Natural graphite production 1

1.2 Synthetic graphite production 2

1.3 Global graphite markets 2

1.3.1 Natural graphite markets 4

1.3.2 Synthetic graphite markets 6

1.4 Trade in natural graphite 7

1.5 Prices 8

2. Geology and resources of natural graphite 9

2.1 Geology of natural graphite deposits 9

2.2 Reserves and resources of natural graphite 11

3. Mining and processing of natural graphite 14

3.1 High-purity natural graphite 16

3.2 Micronised natural graphite 17

3.3 Spherical natural graphite 17

3.4 Expandable/expanded graphite 18

3.5 Graphene and graphite nanoflakes 19

3.5.1 Graphene 20

4. Manufacture of synthetic graphite 24

5. Review of world production of natural graphite 27

5.1 Structure of the natural graphite industry 31

5.2 Recycling of natural graphite 35

5.3 Future trends in world production of natural graphite 35

5.3.1 Short-term outlook 35

5.3.2 Long-term outlook 37

6. Review of world production of synthetic graphite 38

7. Review of world production and processing of natural graphite by

country and company 41

7.1 Australia 41

7.1.1 Potential producers of natural graphite in Australia 41

7.1.1.1 Mega Graphite 41

7.1.1.2 Adelaide Prospecting 42

7.1.1.3 Archer Exploration 42

7.1.1.4 Buxton Resources 43

7.1.1.5 Lincoln Minerals 43

7.1.1.6 Monax Mining 43

7.1.1.7 Pinestar Gold 43

7.2 Austria 44

7.2.1 Producers of natural graphite in Austria 45

7.2.1.1 Grafitbergbau Kaisersberg 45

7.2.1.2 Graphitbergbau M hldorf Morth 46

7.3 Brazil 46

7.3.1 Producers of natural graphite in Brazil 48

7.3.1.1 Nacional de Grafite 48

7.3.1.2 Extrativa Metalquimica 49

7.3.1.3 Grafita 50

7.3.1.4 Others 50

7.3.2 Potential producers of natural graphite in Brazil 50

7.3.2.1 Magnesita Refratarios 50

7.3.2.2 Others 51

7.4 Canada 51

7.4.1 Producers of natural graphite in Canada 52

7.4.1.1 Timcal Canada 52

7.4.1.2 Eagle Graphite 53

7.4.2 Potential producers of natural graphite in Canada 53

7.4.2.1 Northern Graphite 54

7.4.2.2 Focus Graphite 55

7.4.2.3 Ontario Graphite 56

7.4.2.4 Mega Graphite 57

7.4.2.5 Uragold Bay Resources 57

7.4.2.6 Fortune Graphite 58

7.4.2.7 Standard Graphite 58

7.4.2.8 Mason Graphite 59

7.4.3 Processors of natural graphite in Canada 59

7.4.3.1 Babco Industrial 59

7.5 China 59

7.5.1 Reserves and resources of natural graphite in China 60

7.5.2 Production of natural graphite in China 62

7.5.2.1 Production of flake graphite in China 63

7.5.2.2 Production of amorphous graphite in China 64

7.5.3 Processing of natural graphite in China 65

7.5.4 Trade of natural graphite in China 66

7.5.4.1 Exports of natural graphite from China 66

7.5.4.2 Imports of natural graphite to China 69

7.5.5 Producers and processors of natural graphite in China 70

7.5.5.1 South Graphite 74

7.5.5.2 China Graphite 74

7.5.5.3 Heilongjiang Aoyu Graphite Group 75

7.5.5.4 Jixi Liumao Graphite Resources 75

7.5.5.5 Qingdao Haida Graphite 76

7.5.5.6 Hunan Chenzhou Lutang Crystallitic Graphite & Carbon 76

7.5.5.7 Qingdao Hensen Graphite 76

7.5.5.8 Luobei Yixiang Graphite 77

7.5.5.9 Qingdao Heilong Graphite (Qingdao Black Dragon Graphite) 77

7.5.5.10 Qingdao Tiansheng Graphite 78

7.5.5.11 Changzhou Timcal Graphite 78

7.5.5.12 Chenzhou Global Graphite 78

7.5.5.13 China Carbon Graphite 79

7.5.5.14 China Sciences Hengda Graphite 79

7.5.5.15 Hunan Chenzhou Lutang Graphite Mine No.2 Plant 79

7.5.5.16 Jixi BIR Graphite 80

7.5.5.17 Jixi Hengnai Graphite 80

7.5.5.18 Jixi Jinyu Graphite 80

7.5.5.19 Jixi Tiansheng Non-metal Industry 80

7.5.5.20 Luoyang Guanqi Industrial & Trade 81

7.5.5.21 Luobei Qingdao Haida Graphite 81

7.5.5.22 Qingdao Graphite 81

7.5.5.23 Qingdao Guyu Graphite 81

7.5.5.24 Qingdao Henglide Graphite 82

7.5.5.25 Qingdao Haili Graphite Carbon 82

7.5.5.26 Qingdao Jinhui Graphite 82

7.5.5.27 Qingdao Kropfmuehl Graphite 82

7.5.5.28 Qingdao Super Graphite 83

7.5.5.29 Qingdao Tianhe Graphite 83

7.5.5.30 Qingdao Tianzhuang Hengyuang Graphite 83

7.5.5.31 Qingdao Xinghe Graphite 84

7.5.5.32 Qingdao Yanxin Graphite 84

7.5.5.33 Qingdao Zhongdong Graphite 84

7.5.5.34 Timcal Jing Yuan Graphite (Baotou) 85

7.5.5.35 Xinghe Xinyi Graphite 85

7.5.5.36 Yichang Jinchang Graphite 85

7.6 Czech Republic 85

7.6.1 Processors of natural graphite in the Czech Republic 87

7.6.1.1 Graphite Tyn 87

7.6.1.2 Koh-I-noor Grafit 87

7.7 Germany 87

7.7.1 Processors of natural graphite in Germany 88

7.7.1.1 Graphit Kropfmuehl 88

7.7.1.2 Georg H. Luh 90

7.7.1.3 SGL Group – The Carbon Company 91

7.7.1.4 Others 91

7.8 Ghana 92

7.9 Greece 92

7.10 India 92

7.10.1 Reserves and resources of natural graphite in India 92

7.10.2 Production of natural graphite in india 94

7.10.3 Producers of natural graphite in India 95

7.10.3.1 Tamil Nadu Minerals 96

7.10.3.2 Agrawal Graphite Industries (AGI) 96

7.10.3.3 Chotanagpur Graphite Industries 97

7.10.3.4 Parijat Mining Industries 97

7.10.3.5 Pradhan Industries 97

7.10.3.6 Singhania Commercial 97

7.10.3.7 Others 98

7.10.4 Potential producers of natural graphite in India 98

7.10.4.1 Mega Graphite 98

7.10.5 Beneficiation of natural graphite in India 99

7.11 Italy 100

7.12 Japan 101

7.13 Kazakhstan 101

7.14 Korea, North 101

7.14.1 Producers of natural graphite in North Korea 103

7.15 Korea, South 103

7.16 Madagascar 104

7.16.1 Producers of natural graphite in Madagascar 105

7.16.1.1 Etablissements Gallois 105

7.16.1.2 Others 105

7.16.2 Potential producers of natural graphite in Madagascar 106

7.16.2.1 StratMin Global Resources 106

7.16.2.2 Energizer Resources 106

7.16.2.3 Societe Malgache du Graphite 106

7.17 Malawi 107

7.18 Mexico 107

7.18.1 Producers of natural graphite in Mexico 108

7.18.1.1 Grafitos Mexicanos 108

7.18.1.2 Grafito Superior 108

7.18.1.3 Processors of natural graphite in Mexico 108

7.19 Mozambique 109

7.19.1 Potential producers of natural graphite in Mozambique 109

7.19.1.1 Graphit Kropfmuehl de Mocambique 109

7.19.1.2 Syrah Resources 110

7.19.1.3 Rockover Resources 110

7.20 Norway 110

7.20.1 Producers of natural graphite in Norway 110

7.20.1.1 Skaland Graphite 110

7.21 Peru 112

7.22 Poland 112

7.23 Romania 112

7.24 Russia 113

7.24.1 Producers of natural graphite in Russia 114

7.24.1.1 Krasnoyarsk Graphite Factory 114

7.24.1.2 Uralgraphite 114

7.24.2 Potential producers of natural graphite in Russia 115

7.24.2.1 Prominvest 115

7.25 Spain 115

7.26 South Africa 115

7.26.1 Potential production of natural graphite in South Africa 115

7.26.1.1 Jonkel Carbons 115

7.27 Sri Lanka 116

7.27.1 Producers of natural graphite in Sri Lanka 117

7.27.1.1 Bogala Graphite Lanka 117

7.27.1.2 Kahatagaha Graphite Lanka (KGLL) 118

7.27.1.3 Others 119

7.28 Sweden 119

7.28.1 Potential producers of natural graphite in Sweden 120

7.28.1.1 Flinders Resources 120

7.28.1.2 Talga Gold 120

7.28.2 Processors of natural graphite in Sweden 121

7.28.2.1 Minelco Group 121

7.29 Switzerland 121

7.29.1 Processors of natural graphite in Switzerland 121

7.29.1.1 Timcal Graphite & Carbon 121

7.30 Tanzania 122

7.30.1 Potential producers of natural graphite in Tanzania 122

7.31 Turkey 123

7.31.1 Producers of natural graphite in Turkey 123

7.31.1.1 Oysu Graphite Mining 123

7.32 Ukraine 124

7.32.1 Producers of natural graphite in Ukraine 124

7.32.1.1 Zavalyevsky (Zaval’evsky) Graphite Complex 124

7.33 United Kingdom 125

7.33.1 Processors of natural graphite in the UK 125

7.33.1.1 Branwell Graphite 125

7.33.1.2 James Durrans Group 126

7.33.1.3 Morgan Crucible 126

7.34 USA 126

7.34.1 Potential producers of natural graphite in the USA 128

7.34.1.1 Graphite One Resources 128

7.34.2 Processors of natural graphite in the USA 128

7.34.2.1 Asbury Carbons 128

7.34.2.2 GrafTech International 130

7.34.2.3 Graphite Technology 131

7.34.2.4 Poco Graphite 131

7.34.2.5 Superior Graphite 132

7.35 Uzbekistan 132

7.36 Vietnam 133

7.37 Zimbabwe 134

7.37.1 Producers of natural graphite in Zimbabwe 134

7.37.1.1 Zimbabwe German Graphite Mines 134

8. International trade in natural graphite 135

8.1 Exports of natural graphite 136

8.1.1 Exports of natural graphite from China 142

8.1.2 Exports of natural graphite from other countries 143

8.1.3 Exports of flake natural graphite 143

8.1.3.1 Exports of flake natural graphite from China 144

8.1.4 Exports of non-flake natural graphite 145

8.1.4.1 Exports of non-flake natural graphite from China 146

8.2 Imports of natural graphite 147

9. International trade in synthetic graphite 157

9.1 Exports of synthetic graphite 161

9.1.1 Impact of export controls on synthetic graphite trade 167

9.1.2 Trade flows of synthetic graphite from major exporting countries 167

9.2 Imports of synthetic graphite 178

9.2.1 Trade flows of synthetic graphite from major importing countries 184

10. Consumption of natural and synthetic graphite 195

10.1 Apparent consumption of natural graphite 195

10.2 Apparent consumption of synthetic graphite 198

10.3 Consumption of graphite by country 199

10.3.1 Consumption of graphite in Brazil 199

10.3.2 Consumption of graphite in Canada 200

10.3.3 Consumption of graphite in China 200

10.3.4 Consumption of graphite in India 201

10.3.5 Consumption of graphite in Poland 202

10.3.6 Consumption of graphite in Russia 202

10.3.7 Consumption of graphite in the USA 203

10.3.7.1 Natural graphite 203

10.3.7.2 Synthetic graphite 208

11. Forecast demand for natural and synthetic graphite 210

11.1 Forecast demand for natural graphite 210

11.2 Forecast demand for synthetic graphite 211

12. End-uses for natural and synthetic graphite 213

13. Specifications for natural and synthetic graphite by end-use 216

14. Use of synthetic graphite in electrodes 219

14.1 Producers of synthetic graphite electrodes 220

14.1.1 GrafTech International 222

14.1.2 SGL Group – The Carbon Company 222

14.1.3 Beijing Fangda Carbon 223

14.1.4 Showa Denko 223

14.1.5 Tokai Carbon 223

14.1.6 Energoprom 224

14.1.7 Graphite India 224

14.1.8 HEG 225

14.2 Production of crude steel 225

14.2.1 Production of steel by process 227

14.2.2 Producers of crude steel 228

14.2.3 Consumption of synthetic graphite electrodes in steel production 229

14.3 Production of ferroalloys and silicon metal 232

14.4 Carbon arc light 233

15. Use of natural and synthetic graphite in refractories 234

15.1 Types of refractories 234

15.1.1 Magnesia-carbon refractories 236

15.1.2 Alumina-magnesia-carbon refractories 237

15.1.3 Alumina-carbon refractories 238

15.1.4 Silicon carbide-graphite refractories 238

15.1.5 Graphite blocks 238

15.1.6 Graphite freeze linings 238

15.1.7 Crucibles 239

15.2 Production of refractories by region and country 240

15.2.1 Trends in the refractory industry 241

15.2.2 Production of refractories in Asia 242

15.2.2.1 Production of refractories in China 243

15.2.2.2 Production of refractories in Japan 246

15.2.2.3 Production of refractories in India 247

15.2.3 Production of refractories in Europe 248

15.2.3.1 Production of refractories in Spain 251

15.2.4 Production of refractories in South America 251

15.2.5 Production of refractories in the USA 252

15.3 Producers of graphite refractories 253

15.3.1 Argentina 256

15.3.2 Austria 256

15.3.3 Belgium 257

15.3.4 Brazil 257

15.3.5 China 258

15.3.6 Germany 262

15.3.7 India 263

15.3.8 Iran 265

15.3.9 Italy 265

15.3.10 Japan 266

15.3.11 South Korea 267

15.3.12 Mexico 267

15.3.13 Peru 267

15.3.14 Poland 268

15.3.15 Russia 268

15.3.16 Singapore 269

15.3.17 Slovakia 269

15.3.18 Spain 269

15.3.19 Taiwan 269

15.3.20 Turkey 270

15.3.21 Ukraine 270

15.3.22 UK 271

15.3.23 USA 271

15.4 Markets for refractories 272

15.5 Use of basic refractories in the iron and steel industry 273

15.5.1 Production of steel by process 273

15.5.1.1 Refractory consumption in basic oxygen furnaces (BOFs) 274

15.5.1.2 Refractory consumption in electric arc furnaces (EAFs) 276

15.5.1.3 Refractory consumption in secondary refining 276

15.5.1.4 Refractory consumption in continuous casting (concast) 278

15.6 Use of basic refractories in the non-ferrous metals industry 278

15.6.1 Production of non-ferrous metals 279

15.7 Consumption of graphite in refractories 281

15.7.1 US consumption of natural graphite in refractories 281

16. Use of natural and synthetic graphite in recarburising 283

16.1 Use of recarburisers 283

16.2 Producers of synthetic graphite recarburisers 283

16.3 Trends in the use of recarburisers 284

16.3.1 US consumption of natural graphite in recarburisers 285

17. Use of natural and synthetic graphite in lubricants 286

17.1 US consumption of natural graphite in lubricants 288

18. Use of natural and synthetic graphite in graphite shapes 290

18.1 Producers of graphite shapes 292

18.1.1 SGL Group – The Carbon Company 292

18.1.2 GrafTech International 293

18.1.3 Mersen 294

18.1.4 Graphite India 295

18.1.5 Ibiden 295

18.1.6 POCO Graphite 295

18.1.7 SEC Carbon 296

18.1.8 Toyo Tanso 296

18.1.9 Other producers 296

19. Use of natural and synthetic graphite in foundries 297

19.1 World production of castings 297

19.2 US consumption of natural graphite in foundries 300

20. Use of natural and synthetic graphite in batteries 301

20.1 Production of batteries 304

20.2 Trends in the the use of different battery types in major applications 308

20.2.1 Portable consumer applications 308

20.2.2 Traditional automotive applications 309

20.2.3 Alternative energy automotive applications 312

20.2.4 Electric bicycles 317

20.2.5 Stationary applications 318

20.2.6 Other applications 319

20.2.7 Forecast demand for batteries 319

20.3 Use of graphite in lithium-ion batteries 321

20.3.1 Consumption of graphite in lithium-ion batteries 322

20.3.2 Producers of lithium-ion anode material 324

20.3.2.1 BTR Energy Materials 325

20.3.2.2 Carbon Tech 325

20.3.2.3 Changsha Hairong Electronic Materials 325

20.3.2.4 Chuo Denki Kogyo 326

20.3.2.5 Hitachi Chemical 326

20.3.2.6 Hitachi Powdered Metals 327

20.3.2.7 JFE Chemical 327

20.3.2.8 Kureha 327

20.3.2.9 Mitsubishi Chemical 328

20.3.2.10 Nippon Carbon 328

20.3.2.11 Nippon Power Graphite 328

20.3.2.12 Qingdao Dahua 328

20.3.2.13 Shanghai Shanshan 328

20.3.2.14 Showa Denko 329

20.3.2.15 Tokai Carbon 329

20.3.3 Production and demand for lithium-ion batteries 329

20.3.4 Forecast demand for graphite in lithium-ion batteries 331

20.4 Use of graphite in primary alkaline batteries 331

20.4.1 Consumption of graphite in primary alkaline batteries 332

20.5 Use of graphite in lead-acid batteries 333

20.5.1 Consumption of graphite in lead-acid batteries 334

20.6 Use of graphite in other battery types 335

20.7 Use of graphite in fuel cells 335

20.7.1 Consumption of graphite in fuel cells 337

21. Use of natural and synthetic graphite in friction materials 339

21.1 Production of motor vehicles 341

21.1.1 US consumption of natural graphite in brake linings 344

21.2 End-uses for graphite shapes 346

21.2.1 Aerospace 347

21.2.2 Solar photovoltaic electricity 347

21.2.3 Electronics 348

21.2.4 Chemical processing 348

21.2.5 Bearings 348

21.2.6 Carbon brushes 349

21.2.7 Extrusion and furnace parts 349

21.2.8 Glass production 350

21.3 US consumption of natural graphite in carbon products 351

22. Use of natural and synthetic graphite in other end-uses 352

22.1 Use of natural graphite in pencils 352

22.2 Use of natural and synthetic graphite in powder metallurgy 353

22.2.1 Markets for graphite in powder metallurgy 354

22.2.2 Natural graphite products used in powder metallurgy 354

22.2.3 Production of cemented carbides 357

22.2.3.1 Production of cemented carbides in China 357

22.2.3.2 Production of cemented carbides in the USA 358

22.2.3.3 Production of cemented carbide tools in Japan 358

22.2.3.4 Production of cemented carbides in Europe 359

22.2.4 US consumption of natural graphite in powder metallurgy 360

22.3 Use of natural and synthetic graphite in rubber 360

22.3.1 US consumption of natural graphite in rubber 361

22.4 Use of natural graphite in flexible graphite 361

22.4.1 Producers of flexible graphite 362

22.4.2 China 362

22.4.3 Germany 364

22.4.4 India 364

22.4.5 Japan 364

22.4.6 UK 365

22.4.7 USA 365

22.5 Use of natural and synthetic graphite in carbon-graphite foam 367

22.6 Use of natural graphite in paint 367

22.7 Use of natural and synthetic graphite in nuclear reactors 367

22.8 Use of synthetic graphite in synthetic diamonds 371

23. Use of synthetic graphite in carbon fibres 372

23.1 Carbon fibre production process 374

23.2 Producers of carbon fibres 377

23.2.1 Toray Carbon 378

23.2.2 Zoltek 378

23.2.3 Toho Tenax 379

23.2.4 Mitsubishi Rayon 379

23.2.5 Formosa 380

23.2.6 Hexcel 380

23.2.7 SGL Group 381

23.2.8 DowAKSA 383

23.2.9 Cytec 383

23.3 End-uses for carbon fibres 384

24. Competition and substitution of natural and synthetic graphite 389

25. Prices of natural graphite 390

25.1 Trends in prices of natural graphite 395

25.2 Price history of natural flake graphite 396

25.3 Average value of exports from China 398

25.4 Average value of imports into the USA 401

25.5 Average value of imports into Japan 401

25.6 Future price trends for natural graphite 402

26. Prices of synthetic graphite 404

26.1 China 408

26.2 USA 410

26.3 Future price trends for synthetic graphite 411

List of Tables

Page

Table 1: World: Estimated consumption of natural and synthetic graphite by region

and end-use, 2011 3

Table 2: Industrial applications for natural and synthetic graphite 4

Table 3: World: Estimated consumption of synthetic graphite by region and end-use,

2011 6

Table 4: World: Forecast demand for synthetic graphite by region and end-use, 2016 7

Table 5: Typical chemical composition of natural amorphous, flake and lump graphite 10

Table 6: Ash content and analysis in natural graphite 10

Table 7: World: Reserves of natural graphite, 2012 11

Table 8: Location of major natural graphite deposits by type 12

Table 9: World: Particle size and carbon content of commercial graphite production 15

Table 10: Applications for high-purity graphites and alternatives 17

Table 11: Applications for expanded graphite 19

Table 12: Potential applications for graphene 22

Table 13: World: Production of natural graphite by country and graphite type, 2004

to 2011 29

Table 14: World: Estimated capacity for natural graphite by producer, 2011 32

Table 15: World: Major synthetic graphite producers by end-use, 2012 39

Table 16: Austria: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 44

Table 17: Brazil: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 46

Table 18: Brazil: Production of natural graphite by company, 2002 to 2010 47

Table 19: Brazil: Production and sales of natural graphite by selected region, 2005

to 2007 47

Table 20: Nacional de Grafite: Products and their uses 49

Table 21: Canada: Production, trade and reported consumption of graphite, 2004

to 2011 51

Table 22: Quebec: Imports of natural graphite by type, 2004 to 2011 53

Table 23: Canada: Status of major natural graphite developments, as of June 2012 54

Table 24: China: Explored deposits divided by size and type, 1996 61

Table 25: China: Classification of Chinese graphite deposit size 61

Table 26: China: Distribution of natural graphite resources, by region 61

Table 27: China: Distribution of natural graphite resources, by province 62

Table 28: China: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 63

Table 29: China: Production of natural flake graphite, 1991 to 2011 63

Table 30: China: Production of flake graphite ore and stripping quantity, 2012 64

Table 31: China: Exports of natural graphite by type and district, 2004 to 2011 67

Table 32: China: Imports of natural graphite by type and district, 2004 to 2011 70

Table 33: China: Natural graphite producers, 2012 71

Table 34: Qingdao Hensen Graphite: Product list and capacity 77

Table 35: Qingdao Heilong Graphite: Product list, uses and capacity 78

Table 36: Czech Republic: Production and trade in natural graphite, 2004 to 2011 86

Table 37: Czech Republic: Deposits of natural graphite by type, 2009 86

Table 38: Czech Republic: Reserves of natural graphite, 2001 to 2009 86

Table 39: Germany: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 87

Table 40: Graphit Kropfmuehl: Mining and processing capacity, 2011 88

Table 41: Graphit Kropfmuehl: Corporate structure 89

Table 42: Graphit Kropfmuehl: Graphite segment sales, 2004 to 2011 89

Table 43: India: Reserves/resources of graphite by state and grade, April 2005, 93

Table 44: India: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 94

Table 45: India: Production of graphite by sector, state and district, 2006/07

to 2009/10 95

Table 46: India: Relative size of operating mines, 2008/09 and 2009/10 95

Table 47: India: Major producers of natural graphite, 2009/10 96

Table 48: India: Location of major graphite beneficiation plants, 2008/09 100

Table 49: North Korea: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 101

Table 50: South Korea: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 103

Table 51: Madagascar: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 104

Table 52: Mexico: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 107

Table 53: Norway: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 110

Table 54: Romania: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 112

Table 55: Russia: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 113

Table 56: Sri Lanka: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 116

Table 57: Bogala Graphite Lanka: Vein graphite products 118

Table 58: Sweden: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 119

Table 59: Timcal: Details of major graphite operations 122

Table 60: Turkey: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 123

Table 61: Ukraine: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 124

Table 62: Zavalyevsky: Product list 125

Table 63: UK: Trade in natural graphite, 2004 to 2011 125

Table 64: USA: Trade and consumption of natural graphite, 2004 to 2011 127

Table 65: Asbury Carbons: Location of graphite processing plants, 2012 129

Table 66: Asbury Carbons: Specifications of natural graphite products by major

application 130

Table 67: GrafTech: Segments, products and applications, 2009 to 2011 131

Table 68: Superior Graphite: Location of manufacturing facilities 132

Table 69: Uzbekistan: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 133

Table 70: Vietnam: Trade in natural graphite, 2004 to 2011 133

Table 71: Zimbabwe: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011 134

Table 72: World: Recorded trade in natural graphite by type, 2002 to 2011 136

Table 73: World: Exports of natural graphite by region and country, 2002 to 2011 138

Table 74: World: Major reported trade flows of natural graphite exports, 2010 140

Table 75: World: Major reported trade flows of natural graphite exports, 2011 141

Table 76: World: Exports of natural graphite powder or flake by region and country,

2002 to 2011 143

Table 77: World: Exports of natural graphite other than powder or flake by region

and country, 2002 to 2011 145

Table 78: World: Reported imports of natural graphite by region and country, 2002

to 2011 149

Table 79: World: Major reported trade flows of natural graphite imports, 2010 151

Table 80: World: Major reported trade flows of natural graphite imports, 2011 152

Table 81: World: Reported imports of flake natural graphite by region and country,

2002 to 2011 154

Table 82: World: Reported imports of non-flake natural graphite by region and

country, 2002 to 2011 155

Table 83: World: Recorded trade in synthetic graphite by type, 2002 to 2011 159

Table 84: World: Recorded trade in carbon electrodes of a kind used for furnaces,

2002 to 2011 159

Table 85: World: Exports of artificial graphite by region and country, 2002 to 2011
165

Table 86: World: Major reported trade flows of artificial graphite exports, 2010 168

Table 87: World: Major reported trade flows of artificial graphite exports, 2011 169

Table 88: World: Major reported trade flows of colloidal or semi-colloidal graphite
exports, 2010 170

Table 89: World: Major reported trade flows of colloidal or semi-colloidal graphite
exports, 2011 171

Table 90: World: Major reported trade flows of carbonaceous pastes for electrodes

and similar pastes for furnace lining exports, 2010 172

Table 91: World: Major reported trade flows of carbonaceous pastes for electrodes

and similar pastes for furnace lining exports, 2011 173

Table 92: World: Major reported trade flows of preparations based on graphite,

nesoi, exports, 2010 174

Table 93: World: Major reported trade flows of preparations based on graphite,

nesoi, exports, 2011 175

Table 94: World: Major reported trade flows of carbon electrode exports, 2010 176

Table 95: World: Major reported trade flows of carbon electrode exports, 2011 177

Table 96: World: Reported imports of artificial graphite by region and country, 2002

to 2011 180

Table 97: World: Reported imports of carbon electrodes of a kind used for furnaces

by region and country, 2002 to 2011 182

Table 98: World: Major reported trade flows of artificial graphite imports, 2010 185

Table 99: World: Major reported trade flows of artificial graphite imports, 2011 186

Table 100: World: Major reported trade flows of colloidal and semi-colloidal

graphite imports, 2010 187

Table 101: World: Major reported trade flows of colloidal and semi-colloidal

graphite imports, 2011 188

Table 102: World: Major reported trade flows of carbonaceous pastes for electrodes

and similar pastes for furnace lining imports, 2010 189

Table 103: World: Major reported trade flows of carbonaceous pastes for

electrodes and similar pastes for furnace lining imports, 2011 190

Table 104: World: Major reported trade flows of preparations based on graphite,

nesoi, imports, 2010 191

Table 105: World: Major reported trade flows of preparations based on graphite,

nesoi, imports, 2011 192

Table 106: World: Major reported trade flows of carbon electrode imports, 2010 193

Table 107: World: Major reported trade flows of carbon electrode imports, 2011 194

Table 108: World: Estimated consumption of natural and synthetic graphite by

region and end-use, 2011 195

Table 109: World: Estimated consumption of natural graphite by region, 2004

to 2011 196

Table 110: World: Estimated consumption of natural graphite by region and

end-use, 2011 197

Table 111: World: Estimated consumption of natural flake graphite by region and

end-use, 2011 198

Table 112: World: Estimated consumption of synthetic graphite by region and

end-use, 2011 199

Table 113: Canada: Reported consumption of natural graphite, 1998 to 2006 200

Table 114: India: Reported consumption of graphite by end-use, 1999/00 to

2009/10 202

Table 115: USA: Reported consumption of natural graphite by end-use and type,

2001 to 2010 206

Table 116: USA: Shipments of synthetic graphite by end-use, 1999 to 2010 209

Table 117: World: Forecast demand for natural graphite by region and end-use,

2016 210

Table 118: World: Forecast demand for natural flake graphite by region and

end-use, 2016 211

Table 119: World: Forecast demand for synthetic graphite by region and end-use,

2016 212

Table 120: Major applications of primary and secondary natural and synthetic

graphite 214

Table 121: Typical characteristics of synthetic and natural graphites 216

Table 122: Natural graphite specifications by end-use 216

Table 123: Natural graphite specifications by end-use 217

Table 124: General specification of anode grade petroleum coke 218

Table 125: Typical specifications for calcined petroleum needle coke 218

Table 126: VAW: Physical properties of graphite electrodes for electric arc furnaces
219

Table 127: World: Main UHP (ultra high power) graphite electrode producers 221

Table 128: Energoprom: Estimated production of graphite and carbon products,

2006 to 2010 224

Table 129: World: Production of crude steel by region, 2001 to 2011 225

Table 130: World: Production of crude steel by process divided by region, 2010 227

Table 131: World: Estimated consumption of synthetic graphite electrodes for EAF

steelmaking, 1995 to 2011 229

Table 132: Timcal: Specifications of natural flake graphite used in refractories 234

Table 133: World: Specific consumption of refractories 241

Table 134: Japan: Production of refractories by type, 2002 to 2011 247

Table 135: Japan: Consumption of graphite in refractories, 2002 to 2011 247

Table 136: India: Production of refractories by type, 2001/02 to 2005/06 248

Table 137: Spain: Production of refractories by type, 2005 to 2011 251

Table 138: South America: Capacity and production of basic refractories by type,

form, and country, 2010 and 2011 252

Table 139: USA: Shipments of refractories by type, 2003 to 2010 253

Table 140: World: Identified producers of magnesia/alumina-carbon brick, 2012 254

Table 141: RHI: Estimated basic refractories production capacity by plant, 2012 257

Table 142: LWB Refractories: Details of refractory plants, 2012 263

Table 143: Russia: Production of magnesia refractories by company, 2000 to 2008 268

Table 144: Nikomogneupor: Production of magnesia and other refractories, 2000

to 2008 268

Table 145: Ukraine: Production of magnesia refractory products by company, 2000

to 2008 270

Table 146: World: Regional steel production carried out by continuous casting,

2001 to 2010 274

Table 147: Comparison of the gas analysis of synthetic graphite with Desulco(R),

and calcined petroleum coke carbon raiser materials 284

Table 148: Zhenjiang Coking & Gas Group: Specifications of carbon raiser

products 284

Table 149: Asbury Carbons: Details of lubricants containing graphite 287

Table 150: World: Principal producers of synthetic graphite shapes: isostatic,

extruded and moulded, 2012 292

Table 151: World: Production of castings by main countries, 2010 299

Table 152: Major uses of graphite in batteries and fuel cells 302

Table 153: Asbury Carbons: Specification of carbon products for batteries 303

Table 154: Japan: Sales of batteries by type, 1990 to 2011 306

Table 155: Japan: Production of small secondary batteries, 2007-2012 307

Table 156: North America: Domestic shipments of SLI batteries, 1995 to 2011 311

Table 157: World: Vehicle population by region/country, 2005 to 2011 311

Table 158: Nominal energy density of energy sources for use in automobiles 313

Table 159: World: Major HEV, PHEV and EV models, 2012 315

Table 160: World: Forecast production of cars and light vehicles 2011 to 2016 320

Table 161: World: Forecast production of HEVs, PHEVs and BHEVs, 2011 to 2020 320

Table 162: World: Estimated production of coated spherical graphite for use in

lithium-ion batteries by region, 2011 324

Table 163: Selected countries: Consumption of lead in batteries, 2000, 2005

and 2010 334

Table 164: Major fuel cell designs 336

Table 165: Typical specifications of graphite for friction materials 339

Table 166: Types of brake pad for cars and trucks 340

Table 167: Timcal: Typical specifications of TIMREX(R) natural angular flake and

microporous graphite for friction materials 340

Table 168: Timcal: Typical specifications of TIMREX(R) natural irregular spheroid

graphite for friction materials 340

Table 169: Timcal: Typical specifications of TIMREX(R) natural flake graphite for

friction materials 341

Table 170: World: Vehicle production by region, 2002 to 2011 343

Table 171: USA: Estimated unit consumption of graphite in brake linings of new

motor vehicles, 2001 to 2011 345

Table 172: Examples of applications for graphite in the glass industry 350

Table 173: Graphite applications in powder metallurgy and hard metals markets 354

Table 174: Asbury Carbons: Specifications of natural graphite for use in powder

metallurgy 355

Table 175: Asbury Carbons: Specifications of natural graphite for use in hard metals
355

Table 176: Timcal Graphite & Carbon: Specifications and applications of TIMREX

natural graphites for use in powder metallurgy and hard metals 356

Table 177: Timcal Graphite & Carbon: Specifications and applications of selected

TIMREX synthetic graphites for use in powder metallurgy and hard

metals 356

Table 178: China: Production of cemented carbides, 2002 to 2011 357

Table 179: Japan: Production of cemented carbide tools, 2002 to 2011 359

Table 180: Japan: Production of cemented carbide tools by end-use, 2005 to 2011 359

Table 181: Japan: Consumption of graphite in ultra-hard alloys, 2005 to 2011 359

products(r)Table 182: GrafTech International: GRAFOIL 366

Table 183: Details of nuclear reactors in use, 2011 368

Table 184: World: Nuclear power reactors in operation and under construction,

March 2012 369

Table 185: China: Annual and cumulative increase in wind turbine capacity,

2000 to 2011 374

Table 186: World: Principal producers of carbon fibre, 2012 378

Table 187: Hexcel Corporation: Carbon fibre operations, 2012 381

Table 188: SGL Group: Financial results by region, 2011 382

Table 189: Carbon fibre characteristics and applications 386

Table 190: Price of natural flake graphite, 1984 to 2012 393

Table 191: Price of amorphous natural graphite powder (80-85% C), 1984 to 2012 394

Table 192: Year-end price of synthetic graphite1 (99.95% C), 2005 to 2011 405

Table 193: USA: Average value of imports for consumption of synthetic graphite

electrodes, by country, 2009 and 2010 410

Table 194: USA: GrafTech synthetic graphite electrodes and pins pricing table for

deliveries before 31 December 2012 411

List of Figures

Figure 1: World: Estimated consumption of natural graphite by region, 2004 to 2011 5

Figure 2: Natural graphite manufacturing process 16

Figure 3: Synthetic graphite from petroleum coke – manufacturing process 26

Figure 4: World production of natural graphite by type, 2011 27

Figure 5: World: Production of natural graphite by region, 2004 to 2011 30

Figure 6: Austria: Imports of natural graphite by country of origin, 2002 to 2011 45

Figure 7: China: Production of natural graphite compared to Chinese and global
production of crude steel, 2004 to 2012 60

Figure 8: China: Exports of natural graphite by country, 2004 to 2011 66

Figure 9: China: Average value of exports of natural graphite by major countries of
destination, 1995 to 2011 68

Figure 10: China: Comparison of average value of imports and exports, 2002 to 2011 68

Figure 11: China: Imports of natural graphite by country, 2004 to 2011 69

Figure 12: North Korea: Inferred exports of natural graphite by country of

destination, 2004 to 2011 102

Figure 13: North Korea: Average value of inferred exports to China, 2000 to 2011 102

Figure 14: Norway: Inferred exports of natural graphite by country of destination,

2000 to 2011 111

Figure 15: Russia: Imports of natural graphite by country of origin, 2000 to 2011 114

Figure 16: Sri Lanka: Exports of natural graphite by country of destination, 2000

to 2011 116

Figure 17: Sri Lanka: Quantity and average value of exports to selected countries,

2011 117

Figure 18: USA: Imports of natural graphite by country, 2004 to 2011 127

Figure 19: World: Difference between reported exports and imports of natural

graphite by type, 2002 to 2011 136

Figure 20: Reported exports of natural graphite by type, 1995 to 2011 137

Figure 21: World: Exports of natural graphite by major country,, 2002 to 2011 137

Figure 22: China: Exports of natural graphite by region, 1995 to 2011 142

Figure 23: China: Exports of natural flake graphite by region, 1997 to 2011 145

Figure 24: China: Exports of natural non-flake graphite by region, 1995 to 2011 147

Figure 25: Reported imports of natural graphite by type, 1995 to 2011 148

Figure 26: World: Reported imports of natural graphite by major country, 2002

to 2011 148

Figure 27: Japan: Imports of natural graphite by main countries, 1994 to 2011 153

Figure 28: World: Differences between reported exports and imports of synthetic

graphite by type, 2002 to 2011 159

Figure 29: World: Differences between reported exports and imports of carbon
electrodes of

a kind used for furnaces, 2002 to 2011 160

Figure 30: World: Reported exports of synthetic graphite by type, 2002 to 2011 161

Figure 31: World: Reported exports of carbon electrodes of a kind used for

furnaces, 2002 to 2011 162

Figure 32: World: Exports of artificial graphite by main country, 2002 to 2011 163

Figure 33: World: Exports of colloidal or semi-colloidal synthetic graphite by main

country, 2002 to 2011 163

Figure 34: World: Exports of carbonaceous pastes for electrodes and furnace

linings by main country, 2002 to 2011 164

Figure 35: World: Exports of preparations based on synthetic graphite, 2002

to 2011 164

Figure 36: World: Reported imports of synthetic graphite by type, 2002 to 2011 178

Figure 37: World: Reported imports of artificial graphite by main country, 2002

to 2011 179

Figure 38: USA: Imports of carbon electrodes of a kind used for furnaces by main

country, 1995 to 2011 184

Figure 39: World: Estimated consumption of natural graphite by region, 2004

to 2011 196

Figure 40: World: Estimated consumption of natural graphite by region, 2004

to 2011 197

Figure 41: World: Estimated consumption of synthetic graphite by region, 2011 198

Figure 42: Brazil: Consumption of beneficiated natural graphite by end-use, 2008 200

Figure 43: China: Consumption of natural graphite by end-use, 2008 and 2012 201

Figure 44: USA: Trade in natural graphite, 1990 to 2011 203

Figure 45: USA: Imports of natural graphite by type, 1990 to 2011 204

Figure 46: USA: Comparison of average values of imports and exports of natural

graphite, 1990 to 2011 204

Figure 47: USA: Apparent consumption of natural graphite, 1975 to 2011 205

Figure 48: USA: Reported consumption of natural graphite by type, 1993 to 2010 206

Figure 49: USA: Reported consumption of natural graphite by end-use, 1975

to 2010 208

Figure 50: World: Market for natural and synthetic graphite, 2012 213

Figure 51: Production costs for synthetic graphite electrodes by component, 2012 220

Figure 52: World: Regional crude steel production, 2001 and 2011 226

Figure 53: China: Crude steel production compared to rest of world, 1992 to 2012 226

Figure 54: World: Production of crude steel by process, 1988 to 2010 228

Figure 55: World: Production of crude steel by leading companies, 2011 229

Figure 56: World: Production of crude steel by region and process route, 2010 231

Figure 57: World: Production of ferroalloys and silicon metal in EAFs by type, 2010
232

Figure 58: World: Estimated production of refractories by region and country,

2000 to 2011 240

Figure 59: China: Production and trade in refractories, 2006 to 2011 243

Figure 60: China: Production of refractories by type, 2006 to 2011 244

Figure 61: China: Production of refractories by province, 2011 244

Figure 62: China: Refractory production compared with flake graphite supply,

2004 to 2011 245

Figure 63: Japan: Production of shaped and unshaped refractories, 1980 to 2011 246

Figure 64: Europe: Production of refractories by type, 2003 to 2009 248

Figure 65: Europe: Sales of refractories by type, 2003 to 2010 249

Figure 66: Europe: Sales of refractory ceramic constructional goods, 1995 to 2010 250

Figure 67: Europe: Sales of refractory ceramic goods, 1995 to 2010 250

Figure 68: World: Estimated consumption of refractories by end-use, 2012 273

Figure 69: Price development of magnesia, bauxite and graphite, 2005 to 2011 275

Figure 70: World: Refined production of aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, tin and

zinc, 1970 to 2011 279

Figure 71: China: Refined production of aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, tin and

zinc, 2001 and 2011 280

Figure 72: China: Secondary production of aluminium, copper and lead, 2001

and 2011 280

Figure 73: USA: Reported consumption of natural graphite in refractories, 1993

to 2010 281

Figure 74: India: Reported consumption of natural graphite in crucibles and

refractories, 1999/00 to 2009/10 282

Figure 75: USA: Consumption of natural graphite in steelmaking, 1974 to 2010 285

Figure 76: USA: Reported consumption of natural graphite in lubricants, 1974

to 2010 289

Figure 77: World: Production of castings by type, 1998 to 2010 298

Figure 78: World: Regional production of castings, 2000 and 2010 298

Figure 79: China: Production of castings by type, 2000 to 2010 299

Figure 80: USA: Reported consumption of natural graphite in foundries and foundry

facings compared to castings production, 1974 to 2010 300

Figure 81: World: Battery market by value of major battery types, 2011 305

Figure 82: Japan: Sales of secondary (rechargeable) batteries by type, 1990

to 2011 307

Figure 83: Japan: Average values of secondary batteries by type, 2007-2012 308

Figure 84: World: Motor vehicle production by region, 2000 to 2011 310

Figure 85: World: Estimated cumulative HEV sales by region, 2011 314

Figure 86: World: Forecast sales of HEVs, PHEVs and BHEVs, 2011-2020 321

Figure 87: Production of spherical graphite 323

Figure 88: World: Lithium-ion battery production by country, 2000 to 2011 330

Figure 89: World: Division of lithium-ion battery production by major company, 2010
330

Figure 90: World: Production of motor vehicles by region, 2011 342

Figure 91: World: Production of motor vehicles by main countries, 2002 to 2011 342

Figure 92: USA: Reported consumption of natural graphite in brake linings, 1974

to 2010 344

Figure 93: USA: Consumption of graphite in brake linings compared to vehicle

production, 2001 to 2011 345

Figure 94: USA: Consumption of natural graphite in carbon products, 1993 to 2010 351

Figure 95: China: Production of cemented carbides by end-use, 2010 358

Figure 96: USA: Consumption of natural graphite in powder metallurgy, 1988

to 2010 360

Figure 97: USA: Consumption of natural graphite in rubber, 1993 to 2010 361

Figure 98: World: Market for carbon fibres, 2011 372

Figure 99: World: Market for carbon fibres, 2016 373

Figure 100: Carbon fibre production: A cost calculation model for 50k fibre, 2012 375

Figure 101: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor manufacturing process 375

Figure 102: Carbon fibre manufacturing process 376

Figure 103: Materials used in the airframes of the MD80 and B787 385

Figure 104: Average value of natural flake graphite exports, by major exporters,

1995 to 2012 391

Figure 105: Europe: Average price of natural graphite by type, 2003 to 2012 392

Figure 106: Europe: Average price of medium size flake natural graphite by grade,

2003 to 2012 392

Figure 107: China: Exports of graphite compared to average value of exports,

1995 to 2012 398

Figure 108: China: Average value of natural graphite exports by type, 1997 to 2011 399

Figure 109: China: Average value of flake graphite exports by main countries,

1997 to 2011 400

Figure 110: China: Average value of powder graphite exports by main countries,

1997 to 2008 400

Figure 111: USA: Average value of imports of natural graphite by main country,

1990 to 2011 401

Figure 112: Japan: Average value of imports of natural graphite by type, 1994

to 2011 402

Figure 113: Average unit value of exports of artificial graphite, by major exporters,

2000 to 2011 405

Figure 114: Average unit value of exports of colloidal or semi-colloidal graphite,

by major exporters, 2000 to 2011 406

Figure 115: Average unit value of exports of carbonaceous pastes for electrodes

and similar pastes for furnace linings, by major exporters, 2000 to 2011 406

Figure 116: Average unit value of exports of preparations based on graphite

by major exporters, 2000 to 2011 407

Figure 117: Average unit value of exports of carbon electrodes of a kind used for

furnaces, by major exporters, 2000 to 2011 407

Figure 118: China: Exports of artificial graphite compared to average value of

exports, 2000 to 2011 409

Figure 119: China: Average value of synthetic graphite exports by type, 2000

to 2011 409

Figure 120: USA: Average value of imports of synthetic graphite electrodes by

main country, 2000 to 2011 410

SOURCE Roskill Information Services


Source: PR Newswire