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Sludge Management: Opportunities in growing volumes, disposal restrictions and energy recovery

December 18, 2013

LONDON, Dec. 18, 2013 /PRNewswire/ — Reportbuyer.com just published a new market research report:

Sludge Management: Opportunities in growing volumes, disposal restrictions and energy recovery


Overview

If all of the wastewater from the world’s urban population was collected and treated, in one year enough dry sludge could be generated used to cover an area equivalent to Singapore in a layer 10cm thick. And by 2017, 83 million tonnes of dry sewage sludge would be generated by 2017.


It is clear that effective sludge management has never been so important – the challenges of increased production volumes, social responsibility, stricter disposal regulations and less landfill space are creating opportunities to maximise the value of sludge for water treatment suppliers and wastewater producers alike.

With a booming global population, the volume of municipal sludge being produced is on the increase, and it simply has to be treated. The growing importance of cost effective sludge management is changing the size and shape of the market – as the volumes being produced accumulate, the evolving perspective is that sludge can be a renewable resource with a potential value stream, and that there are cost reduction opportunities from efficient sludge management. This report showcases the strategies that will allow you to benefit from a sustainable sludge management process.

On top of the usual waste disposal legislation associated with environmental protection, governments are also implementing stricter disposal restrictions to promote recycling of waste streams and discourage landfilling in regions where space is becoming scarce. With urban growth set to continue globally, these disposal restrictions and regulations are likely to become even more widespread – so now is the time for municipalities to maximise the value of their sludge streams and decrease their disposal costs, and for water technology suppliers to be aware of the global trends and regional challenges that will increase the demand for their services. We look at the drivers and trends in the sludge management market and the opportunities for your particular business.

The report focuses heavily on regions and their individual market characteristics. Please view our ‘regions’ section for detailing information on the regions covered.

Market Forecast Categories

We will forecast by:
1. Region (USA, European Union, Middle East, China, Brazil, Rest of World)
2. Equipment type (Thickening and Dewatering; Pumps; Anaerobic digestion; Stabilisation; Drying, Thermal processes; Balance of Plant)
3. Municipal/Industrial (Food and Beverage, Pulp and Paper)

Opportunities and Technologies

Pretreatment – reliable methods that ensure the later advanced treatment process is not disrupted by contaminants in the sludge. This improves efficiency resulting in reduced volumes and operating costs.
Energy recovery – opportunities in reducing operating costs through energy efficiency; recovering energy from sewage sludge by capturing and using biogas produced during anaerobic digestion – with the prospect of benefi tting from renewable energy incentives in some countries; and producing alternative fuels – such as syngas, bio-oil and biochar – to reduce dependence on fossil fuels or to be sold for profi t.
Sludge reuse – sludge is no longer simply viewed as a waste but as a saleable product with a potential revenue stream.
Opportunities include:
- Fertiliser and other land applications
- Nutrient recovery – phosphorous and nitrogen
- Material recovery – sludge can be used as a raw material in the manufacture of bricks and cement, reducing disposal costs.

In this report, we show you the sludge management options and technologies that will allow sludge streams be maximised. The opportunities are there to save money by disposing of smaller amounts of waste and by capitalising on energy recovery.

Technologies covered:
- Thickening
- Stabilisation
- Dewatering
- Drying
- Thermal Processes

Who should read this report?

This report is an essential guide for any organisation that produces or treats a wastewater stream.
Wastewater treatment suppliers - this report shows the current and future shape of the market, so they can pinpoint the opportunities for their technologies and offer their clients the most efficient sludge management systems.
Municipal water /utilities -This report is a guide to treating your municipal sludge streams more cost effectively – it gives advice on the new approaches and technologies to help you tailor a sludge management strategy that is right for your business.
Investors - This report is a guide to current and emerging opportunities in sludge management



Publication information ii
Executive summary iii
Global municipal sludge equipment market forecast, 2011 and 2017 iii
Global municipal sludge equipment market forecast by country, 2011-2017 iv
Market challenges iv
Opportunities v
Sludge management industry: Full summary vi
Background material viii
Exchange rates viii
Unit conversion factors viii
Terminology viii
Diagram icons viii

1. Introduction to sludge 1

1.1 Sludge types 1
1.1.1 Sludge generation from municipal wastewater treatment 1
Figure 1.1 Wastewater treatment steps and sludge generation 2
1.1.1.1 Wastewater pretreatment 2
1.1.1.2 Primary wastewater treatment 3
1.1.1.3 Secondary wastewater treatment 3
1.1.1.4 Mixed sludge 3
1.1.1.5 Tertiary/advanced wastewater treatment 3
1.1.1.6 Digested sludge 4
1.1.1.7 Disinfection 4
Figure 1.2 Wastewater treatment technologies that generate sludge 4
1.2 Sludge characteristics and composition 5
1.2.1 Composition of sludge 5
Figure 1.3 Typical composition of different sludge types 5
1.2.1.1 Water 5
Figure 1.4 Forms of water present in sludge 6
1.2.1.2 Organic matter 6
1.2.1.3 Organic pollutants 6
1.2.1.4 Nutrients 6
1.2.1.5 Pathogens 6
1.2.1.6 Heavy metals 6
1.2.2 Sludge characteristics 7
1.2.2.1 Settleability 7
1.2.2.2 Dewaterability 7
1.2.2.3 Electrical charge 7
1.2.2.4 Fuel value 7
1.3 Industrial sludge 7
1.3.1 Food and beverage sludge 7
1.3.1.1 Introduction to the food and beverage industry 7
1.3.1.2 F&B manufacturing process 8
Figure 1.5 F&B processing steps with wastewater generation 8
1.3.1.3 F&B wastewater treatment and sludge generation 9
Figure 1.6 Standard F&B wastewater treatment steps and sludge generation 9
1.3.1.4 Composition of F&B sludge 10
Figure 1.7 Average composition of a typical F&B sludge stream 10
1.3.2 Pulp and paper sludge 11
1.3.2.1 Introduction to the pulp and paper industry 11
1.3.2.2 P&P manufacturing process 11
Figure 1.8 Comparison of pulping process 11
Figure 1.9 Standard P&P processing steps with wastewater generation 12
1.3.2.3 P&P wastewater treatment and sludge generation 13
Figure 1.10 Standard P&P wastewater treatment steps and sludge generation 13
1.3.2.4 Composition of P&P sludge 13
Figure 1.11 Average composition of typical P&P sludge 14

2. Drivers and regulations 15

2.1 Costs 15
2.1.1 Energy and disposal cost savings 16
2.1.2 Maximising the value of sludge 17
2.2 Regulations 18
2.3 Public perception 19
2.4 Industrial sludge management drivers 20
Regulatory framework 22
2.5 The EU regulatory environment 23
2.5.1 Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (UWWTD) 98/15/EC 23
2.5.2 Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC 23
2.5.3 Sewage Sludge Directive (SSD) 86/278/EEC 23
Figure 2.1 Limit values for concentrations of heavy metals per category 24
2.5.3.1 Revision of the Sewage Sludge Directive 24
The “end-of-waste” criteria 24
Fertilisers regulation (EC) No. 2003/2003 revision 25
2.5.4 EU Member States’ implementation of the SSD 25
Figure 2.2 Regulatory limits for pathogens and organic compounds in the EU 26
2.5.5 Industrial sludge for land application 26
2.5.6 Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC 27
2.5.6.1 Pretreatment requirements for sludge disposal 27
2.5.7 Directive 2000/76/EC on incineration of waste 27
2.5.8 Disposal costs 28
Figure 2.3 Cost of municipal sludge disposal methods in the EU 28
2.5.9 Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC 28
Figure 2.4 National renewable energy targets (as a % of total gross electricity consumption) 28
2.5.10 Industrial Emissions Directive 2010/75/EU 28
2.6 The U.S. regulatory environment 29
2.6.1 Federal Municipal Sludge Regulations – 40 CFR Part 503 29
2.6.1.1 Land application of municipal sludge – Part 503, subparts B and D 29
Figure 2.5 Pollutant limit values for land application of sludge in the U.S. (including agricultural use) 29
Figure 2.6 Classification of Class A and Class B sludge in the U.S. 30
2.6.1.2 Land disposal of municipal sludge – Part 503, subpart C 30
Figure 2.7 Pollutant limit values for final land disposal of sludge in an unlined active sewage sludge unit 30
Pretreatment requirements 30
2.6.1.3 Incineration of sludge 31
Pretreatment requirements 32
2.6.2 State application of 40 CFR Part 503 – land application 33
Figure 2.8 State-level implementation of 40 CFR Part 503 – land application 33
Figure 2.9 U.S. states that apply stricter rules than 40 CFR Part 503 34
2.6.2.1 Restrictions on nutrient levels in wastewater and sludge 34
2.6.3 Revision of 40 CFR Part 503 35
Figure 2.10 Potential pollutants under consideration for revision or inclusion in Part 503, subpart B 36
2.6.4 Renewable energy incentives 37
2.7 Canada regulatory environment 37
2.7.1 Municipal sludge regulation overview 37
Figure 2.11 Province-level implementation of regulations – land application and landfilling of sludge 38
2.7.1.1 Regulating heavy metals in sludge 38
Figure 2.12 Limit values for heavy metals in sludge by class (Organic Matter Standard Regulations) 39
2.7.1.2 Regulating pathogens in sludge 39
Figure 2.13 Examples of numerical limits and management techniques for pathogen control in Canada 39
2.7.1.3 Regulating organics in sludge 39
2.7.2 Landfilling of sludge 39
2.8 Chinese regulatory environment 40
2.8.1 Development of sludge management standards 40
Figure 2.14 Chinese municipal sludge regulations and guidance documents 40
2.8.2 Sludge regulations overview 40
2.8.2.1 Land application of sludge 41
Figure 2.15 Regulation parameters for land application of sludge in China 41
2.8.2.2 Landfilling of sludge 42
Figure 2.16 Selected limit values for landfill disposal in China (GB/T23485-2009) 42
2.8.2.3 Incineration of sludge 42
Figure 2.17 Selected limit values for incineration of sludge in China (GB/T 24602-2009) 42
2.8.3 Use of sludge in the cement and brick manufacturing industry 43
Figure 2.18 Limit values for the use of sludge in cement and brick manufacturing in China 43
2.8.4 Implementation of sludge regulations 43
2.9 Brazilian regulatory environment 44
2.9.1 Agricultural application of sludge 44
Figure 2.19 Limit values for concentrations of heavy metals (Resolution CONAMA No. 375/2006) 44
Figure 2.20 Class A and Class B sludge parameters (Resolution CONAMA No. 375/2006) 45
Figure 2.21 Limit values for concentrations of organic substances (Resolution CONAMA No. 375/2006) 45
2.9.2 Disposal of sludge into the open environment 46
2.9.3 Landfilling of sludge 46
2.10 Middle East regulatory environment 47
2.10.1 Saudi Arabia 47
Figure 2.22 Limit values for the use of sludge in agriculture, Saudi Arabia 47
2.10.2 United Arab Emirates 48
2.10.2.1 Abu Dhabi 48
Figure 2.23 Land application of sludge in Abu Dhabi (RWB 2010) 48
Figure 2.24 Criteria for biosolids stabilisation in Abu Dhabi 48
2.10.2.2 Dubai 48
Figure 2.25 Land application of sludge in Dubai (EN 5.0) 48
2.10.3 Oman 49
2.10.3.1 Land application of sludge 49
Figure 2.26 Limit values for heavy metals in sludge, for land application in Oman (MRME 145/93) 49
2.11 Comparative study of the pollutant limits of sludge used in agriculture 50
2.11.1 Introduction 50
2.11.2 Differences in the scope of regulations 50
2.11.2.1 Differences in regulating heavy metals 50
2.11.2.2 Differences in regulating pathogens 51
2.11.2.3 Differences in regulating organic compounds 51
Figure 2.27 Country comparison of pollutant limits for sludge used in agriculture 52

3. Management strategies for sludge 53

3.1 Introduction 53
Figure 3.1 Changes in sludge management practices in the developed countries, 1970-present 53
3.2 Sludge management: Disposal routes 54
Figure 3.2 Technologies for treating sludge 54
3.2.1 Landfilling 54
Figure 3.3 Management trains for sludge landfilling 55
3.2.1.1 Landfill disposal: Sludge management train 1 55
3.2.1.2 Landfill disposal: Sludge management train 2 55
3.2.2 Incineration 55
3.2.2.1 Incineration: Sludge management train 56
Figure 3.4 Management train for sludge incineration 56
3.2.3 Land spreading 57
3.2.3.1 Agricultural use: Sludge management train 57
Figure 3.5 Management train – Production and land spreading of Class A product 58
3.2.3.2 Case study: Haya Water Utility, Oman – Kala Compost production 59
3.2.3.3 Non-agricultural use: Sludge management train 60
Figure 3.6 Management train – Production and land spreading of Class B product 60
3.2.4 Sludge management: Deep well injection disposal 61
3.2.4.1 Deep well injection: Sludge disposal steps 61
3.2.4.2 Case study: Terminal Island Renewable Energy (TIRE) project, Los Angeles – deep well injection 61
Figure 3.7 TIRE project overview 62
Figure 3.8 Sludge volumes treated and disposed of by the TIRE project 62
3.3 Sludge management: Beneficial use of sludge 63
3.3.1 Energy recovery 63
3.3.1.1 Management approach: Anaerobic digestion for biogas recovery 63
Figure 3.9 Management train – Anaerobic digestion for biogas recovery 64
3.3.1.2 Case study: Blue Plains WWTP – Anaerobic digestion and Cambi(TM) thermal hydrolysis 65
Figure 3.10 Blue Plains project overview 65
Figure 3.11 Sludge treatment train 65
Figure 3.12 Biogas production data 66
3.3.1.3 Case study: Aquiris Brussels-North WWTP – Anaerobic digestion & wet air oxidation 66
Figure 3.13 Sludge treatment channel with sludge volumes and concentrations 67
Figure 3.14 Biogas and electricity production and use 67
3.3.1.4 Management approach: Gasification for syngas recovery 68
Figure 3.15 Management train – Gasification for syngas recovery 68
3.3.1.5 Management approach: Pyrolysis for syngas, bio-oil and biochar recovery 68
Figure 3.16 Management train – Pyrolysis for syngas, bio-oil and biochar recovery 69
3.3.2 Resource recovery 69
3.3.2.1 Management approach: Phosphorus recovery 69
3.3.2.2 Nutrient recovery from dewatered digested sludge return liquors 70
3.3.2.3 Phosphorus recovery from incineration ash 70
3.3.3 Material recovery 70
3.3.3.1 Beneficial use of sludge: Cement industry 70
3.3.3.2 Beneficial use of sludge: Production of bricks 71
3.4 Adaptive sludge management approaches 71
3.4.1 Case study: Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin WWTP – FOG co-digestion 72
Figure 3.17 Sludge volumes processed 72
Figure 3.18 Power produced and power purchased 72
3.4.2 Case study: Kurobe City WWTP – Anaerobic co-digestion 73
Figure 3.19 Kurobe City project overview 73
Figure 3.20 Types of sludge digested at the Kurobe City WWTP 73
3.5 Sludge disposal costs 74
3.5.1 Costs of different sludge disposal options in Europe 74
Figure 3.21 Net cost of different sludge disposal options in Europe 74
Figure 3.22 Net costs of different sludge disposal options in Europe 75
Figure 3.23 Net cost of different sludge disposal options by country in $/tds 75
3.5.2 Costs of different sludge disposal options in the U.S. 76
Figure 3.24 Operating & maintenance costs of different sludge disposal options in the U.S., City of Los Angeles 76
3.5.3 Costs of sludge disposal options in China 76
Figure 3.25 Cost of sludge disposal options in China 76

4. Technologies 77

4.1 Sludge thickening and dewatering 77
Figure 4.1 Thickening and dewatering technologies 77
4.1.1 Coagulation and flocculation 77
Figure 4.2 Coagulation and flocculation at a molecular level 78
4.1.1.1 Coagulation and flocculation process steps 78
4.1.1.2 Properties and performance of coagulation and flocculation 78
4.1.2 Gravity thickening (sedimentation) 78
4.1.2.1 Gravity thickening process steps 79
Figure 4.3 Gravity thickener 79
4.1.3 Gravity belt thickening 79
4.1.3.1 Gravity belt thickening process steps 79
4.1.4 Rotary drum thickening 80
4.1.4.1 Rotary drum thickening process steps 80
4.1.5 Flotation thickening 80
4.1.5.1 Dissolved air flotation (DAF) thickening process steps 80
4.1.5.2 Alternative flotation thickening technologies 80
4.1.5.3 Case study: Atuba Sul WWTP – Dissolved air flotation (DAF) thickening 81
Figure 4.4 Wastewater and sludge treatment train at the Atuba Sul WWTP 81
Figure 4.5 Wastewater and sludge volumes 81
Figure 4.6 Quality of treated sludge discharged 82
4.1.6 Thickening technologies: Advantages and disadvantages 82
Figure 4.7 Comparison of thickening technologies 82
4.1.7 Centrifuge 83
4.1.8 Solid bowl decanter centrifuge 83
Figure 4.8 Solid bowl decanter centrifuge 83
4.1.8.1 Solid bowl decanter centrifuge process steps 83
4.1.9 Disk bowl centrifuge 83
4.1.9.1 Disk bowl centrifuge process steps 84
4.1.10 Perforated basket centrifuge 84
4.1.10.1 Perforated basket centrifuge process steps 84
4.1.11 Imperforate basket centrifuge 84
4.1.11.1 Imperforate basket centrifuge process steps 84
4.1.12 Rotary vacuum filter 84
Figure 4.9 Rotary vacuum filter 85
4.1.12.1 Rotary vacuum filter process steps 85
4.1.13 Thickening/dewatering technologies: Advantages and disadvantages 85
Figure 4.10 Comparison of thickening/dewatering technologies 85
4.1.14 Orège SLG© dewatering technology 86
4.1.14.1 SLG© Process steps 86
4.1.14.2 Properties and performance of SLG© 86
4.1.15 Belt filter press 86
4.1.15.1 Belt filter press process steps 86
4.1.16 Screw press 86
4.1.16.1 Screw press process steps 87
4.1.17 Rotary fan press 87
Figure 4.11 Rotary fan press 87
4.1.17.1 Rotary fan press process steps 87
4.1.18 Dewatering technologies: Advantages and disadvantages 88
Figure 4.12 Comparison of dewatering technologies 88
4.2 Stabilisation: Digestion 88
4.2.1 Thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) 89
4.2.1.1 TAD process steps 89
4.2.1.2 Properties and performance of TAD 89
4.2.2 Anaerobic digestion (AD) 89
4.2.3 Advanced anaerobic digestion technologies 89
Figure 4.13 Pretreatment breakdown of sludge 90
4.2.3.1 Thermal hydrolysis 90
Thermal hydrolysis process steps 90
4.2.3.2 Enzymic hydrolysis 91
Enzymic hydrolysis process steps 91
4.2.3.3 Ultrasonic sludge disintegration 91
Ultrasonic sludge disintegration process steps 91
4.2.3.4 Ozonation pretreatment 92
Ozonation process steps 92
4.2.4 Anaerobic digestion pretreatment technologies: Properties and performance 92
Figure 4.14 Comparison of anaerobic digestion pretreatment technologies 92
4.2.5 AD temperatures 92
4.2.6 Chemical process of AD 93
Figure 4.15 Chemical processes of anaerobic digestion 93
4.2.6.1 AD process steps 93
4.2.7 Other AD configurations 94
Figure 4.16 A conventional digester and a high rate digester 94
4.2.7.1 Properties and performance of AD 94
4.3 Stabilisation: Chemical 95
4.3.1 Lime stabilisation 95
4.3.1.1 Lime stabilisation process steps 95
4.3.1.2 Properties and performance of lime stabilisation 95
4.3.2 BCR Environmental Neutralizer® process 95
4.3.2.1 Neutralizer® process steps 96
4.3.2.2 Properties and performance of Neutralizer® 96
4.3.3 BCR Environmental CleanB(TM) process 96
4.3.3.1 CleanB(TM) Process steps 96
4.3.3.2 Properties and performance of CleanB(TM) 96
4.3.3.3 Case study: City of Alachua AWRF, Florida – BCR CleanB(TM) technology 97
Figure 4.17 City of Alachua Advanced Water Reclamation Facility (AWRF) project overview 97
4.4 Stabilisation: Other 98
4.4.1 Pasteurisation 98
4.4.2 Composting 98
4.4.2.1 Composting process steps 98
4.4.2.2 Properties and performance of composting 99
4.5 Drying 99
4.5.1 Drying beds 99
Figure 4.18 Sand drying bed 100
4.5.1.1 Drying bed process steps 100
4.5.2 Solar drying 100
Figure 4.19 A solar drying building 101
4.5.2.1 Solar drying process steps 101
4.5.3 Thermal drying 101
4.5.3.1 Direct thermal drying 101
Rotary drum drying process steps 102
Flash drying process steps 102
Spray drying process steps 102
4.5.3.2 Indirect thermal drying 102
Paddle drying process steps 102
Disc drying process steps 103
4.5.4 Drying technologies: Advantages and disadvantages 103
Figure 4.20 Comparison of drying technologies 103
4.5.5 Case study: Suzhou Industrial Park – Sludge drying using Degrémont’s INNODRY 2E® technology 103
Figure 4.21 Sludge qualities and volumes received and disposed of 103
Figure 4.22 Evaporation drying capacity 104
4.6 Thermal processes 104
4.6.1 Incineration 104
4.6.1.1 Multiple hearth incinerators 105
Figure 4.23 A multiple hearth incinerator 105
Multiple hearth incineration process steps 105
4.6.1.2 Fluidised bed incinerators 106
Fludised bed incineration process steps 106
4.6.2 Wet air oxidation (WAO) 106
4.6.2.1 WAO Process steps 106
4.6.3 Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) 106
4.6.3.1 SCWO process steps 106
4.6.4 Pyrolysis 107
4.6.4.1 Pyrolysis process steps 107
4.6.5 Gasification 107
4.6.5.1 Gasification process steps 107
4.6.6 Thermal processes: Advantages and disadvantages 108
Figure 4.24 Comparison of thermal processes 108
4.6.7 Controlled Thermal Conversion (CTC) 108
4.6.7.1 CTC process steps 108
4.6.7.2 Properties and performance of CTC 109
4.7 Nutrient recovery 109
4.7.1 Nutrient recovery from dewatered sludge liquid 109
4.7.1.1 Pearl® process steps 109
Figure 4.25 Pearl® nutrient recovery process 110
4.7.1.2 Properties and performance of Pearl® 110
4.7.1.3 Case study: Nansemond WWTP – Ostara Pearl® nutrient recovery process 110
Figure 4.26 Pearl® nutrient recovery process at Nansemond WWTP 111
4.7.2 Nutrient recovery from incinerated sludge ash 111
4.7.2.1 Ash Dec® process steps 111
4.7.2.2 Ash Dec® properties and performance 112

5. Market analysis 113

5.1 Market division and segmentation 113
Figure 5.1 Global municipal sludge equipment market forecast, 2011 and 2017 113
Figure 5.2 Global municipal sludge equipment market forecast by country, 2011 and 2017 114
5.2 Market players 115
Figure 5.3 Sludge market players 115
5.3 Country and region market analysis 120
5.3.1 China 120
5.3.1.1 Development of wastewater treatment, 2004-2010 120
Figure 5.4 Urban wastewater discharge and treatment volumes, 2004-2010 120
Figure 5.5 WWTP number, design capacity and operational capacity, 2004-2010 121
5.3.1.2 Sludge management investment during the 12th Five Year Plan, 2011-2015 121
Figure 5.6 Sludge management practices, 2010 121
Figure 5.7 Breakdown of wastewater expenditure, 2006-2010 (11th FYP) and 2011-2015 (12th FYP) 122
Figure 5.8 Sludge management: 2010 position and 2015 targets from 12th FYP 122
Figure 5.10 Regional breakdown of sludge management investment from the 12th Five Year Plan, 2011-2015 123
5.3.1.3 Sludge management investment beyond 2015 123
Figure 5.11 WWTP investment from the 12th Five Year Plan by region, 2011-2015 124
Figure 5.12 Estimate of the sludge management market potential by region, 2015 and beyond 125
5.3.2 Brazil 126
5.3.2.1 Development of wastewater treatment, 2005-2010 126
Figure 5.13 Population served, wastewater collected and wastewater treated by region, 2005 and 2010 126
5.3.2.2 Wastewater investment levels, 2007-2014 126
Figure 5.14 Overview of water and wastewater funding from PAC1 and PAC2, 2007-2014 126
Figure 5.15 PAC1 and PAC2 wastewater project funding allocations, 2007-2010 126
Figure 5.16 PAC1 and PAC2 wastewater project funding allocations by utility, 2007-2010 127
5.3.2.3 Sludge management practices and investments 127
Figure 5.17 Wastewater treatment, sludge production and wastewater investment in Brazil, 2005-2010 128
Figure 5.18 Sludge disposal routes by number of municipalities and region, 2008 128
Figure 5.19 Wastewater treatment, sludge production & wastewater investment by top utilities, 2005-2010 128
Figure 5.20 Wastewater treatment, sludge production and wastewater investment by SABESP, 2005-2010 129
5.3.3 European Union 129
Figure 5.21 UWWTD compliance dates for EU-12 states 129
Figure 5.22 Sludge production per capita in the European Union and EFTA, 2010 130
Figure 5.23 Sludge disposal routes in the EU-15 countries, 2010-2020 131
Figure 5.24 Sludge disposal routes in the EU-12 countries, 2010-2020 131
Figure 5.25 Sludge disposal routes in the Netherlands, 1990-2010 132
5.3.4 U.S. 133
5.3.4.1 Municipal WWTP capacity and sludge production 133
Figure 5.26 Wastewater treatment volumes and estimate of sludge production, 2011 133
Figure 5.27 Number of WWTPs and cumulative capacity, 2011 135
5.3.4.2 Current sludge management practices 135
Figure 5.28 Sludge disposal, beneficial use and treatment, 2004 136
5.3.4.3 Future sludge management trends 136
5.3.4.4 Anaerobic digestion and biogas 137
Figure 5.29 Locations of WWTPs using AD for sludge treatment, 2012 137
Figure 5.30 WWTPs with AD and with potential for AD by state, 2012 138
5.3.4.5 Future projects 139
Figure 5.31 Projected expenditure on WWTP projects in pre-release WIN database by state, 2012-2017 139
5.3.5 MENA 140
5.3.5.1 Current levels of wastewater treatment 140
Figure 5.32 Estimates of wastewater produced collected and treated and sludge production, 2010 140
5.3.5.2 Wastewater treatment and sludge management, 2011 onwards 140
Figure 5.33 Expenditure on WWTPs from GWI PPP and water reuse trackers, 2008 onwards 141
Figure 5.34 Additional WWTP capacity from GWI’s PPP and water reuse trackers, 2008 onwards 142
Figure 5.35 Estimate of additional sludge production for tracked WWTP projects, 2008 onwards 143
5.4 Market forecast 144
Figure 5.36 Global municipal sludge equipment market forecast by country, 2011-2017 144
Figure 5.37 Global municipal sludge equipment market forecast, 2011-2017 145
Figure 5.38 China municipal sludge equipment market forecast, 2011-2017 145
Figure 5.39 Brazil municipal sludge equipment market forecast, 2011-2017 146
Figure 5.40 U.S. municipal sludge equipment market forecast, 2011-2017 146
Figure 5.41 EU-15 municipal sludge equipment market forecast, 2011-2017 147
Figure 5.42 EU-12 municipal sludge equipment market forecast, 2011-2017 147
Figure 5.43 MENA municipal sludge equipment market forecast, 2011-2017 148
Figure 5.44 Rest of world municipal sludge equipment market forecast, 2011-2017 148
Figure 5.45 Pulp and paper sludge equipment market forecast, 2011-2017 149
Figure 5.46 Food and beverage sludge equipment market forecast, 2011-2017 149

6. Accessing the market 151

6.1 Municipal sludge 151
6.1.1 Market approach 151
6.1.2 Success factors 156
6.1.3 Market players 161
6.1.4 Market dominance 164
6.1.5 Dominant technologies 166
6.1.6 Integrated solutions versus separate technologies 169
6.1.7 Nature of the market 170
6.1.8 Procurement process 174
6.1.8.1 Procurement models 174
6.1.8.2 Procurement costs 177
Capital and operational cost strategy 177
Expenditure costs 179
6.1.9 Outsourcing potential 180
6.1.10 Collaborations and partnerships 182
6.1.11 Market share and market size 183
6.2 Industrial sludge 184
6.2.1 Market approach 184
6.2.2 Success factors 186
6.2.3 Market players 188
6.2.4 Market dominance 188
6.2.5 Integrated solutions versus separate technologies 190
6.2.6 Nature of market 191
6.2.7 Procurement process 192
6.2.7.1 Procurement models 193
6.2.7.2 Procurement costs 194
6.2.8 Outsourcing 195
6.2.9 Market share and market size 198

7. Market opportunities 199

7.1 Municipal sludge 199
7.1.1 Overview of market opportunities 199
7.1.2 Opportunities in anaerobic digestion 204
7.1.2.1 Anaerobic digestion trend 204
7.1.3 Opportunities in biogas recovery 206
7.1.3.1 Adoption of biogas recovery 207
7.1.3.2 Biogas use applications 208
7.1.3.3 Challenges affecting biogas recovery 209
7.1.4 Opportunities in sludge as a value stream 212
7.1.5 Opportunities in nutrient recovery 215 xvii
7.1.6 Opportunities in green products 217
7.2 Industrial sludge 218
7.2.1 Overview of market opportunities 218
7.2.2 Opportunities in energy 220
7.2.3 Opportunities in sludge as a value stream 222

8. Market focus: Regions 225

8.1 Introduction 225
8.2 Growth region: China 226
8.2.1 China: Growth potential 227
8.2.2 China: Drivers 229
8.2.3 China: Accessing the market 231
8.2.3.1 Market overview 231
8.2.3.2 Market dynamics 233
8.2.3.3 Procurement process 236
8.2.4 China: Market opportunities 238
8.2.4.1 Anaerobic digestion trend 239
8.2.4.2 Value from sludge 242
8.3 Europe 243
8.3.1 Europe: Growth potential 243
8.3.2 Europe: Drivers 244
8.3.3 Europe: Accessing the market 248
8.3.3.1 Market overview 248
8.3.3.2 Dominant technologies 250
8.3.3.3 Procurement process 253
8.3.4 Europe: Market opportunities 255
8.3.4.1 Anaerobic digestion trend 256
8.3.4.2 Value from sludge 260
8.4 North America 261
8.4.1 North America: Growth potential 261
8.4.2 North America: Drivers 262
8.4.3 North America: Accessing the market 263
8.4.3.1 Market overview 263
8.4.3.2 Procurement process 266
8.4.4 North America: Market opportunities 268
8.4.4.1 Anaerobic digestion trend 269
8.4.4.2 Value from sludge 270
8.5 Other regions: Brazil, Japan, Middle East 271
8.5.1 Other regions: Growth potential 271
8.5.2 Other regions: Drivers 272
8.5.3 Other regions: Accessing the market 273
8.5.3.1 Market overview 273
8.5.3.2 Procurement process 276
8.5.4 Other regions: Market opportunities 279
8.5.4.1 Anaerobic digestion trend 280
8.5.4.2 Value from sludge 282

Interviewees 285

References 287



Read the full report:
Sludge Management: Opportunities in growing volumes, disposal restrictions and energy recovery
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SOURCE ReportBuyer


Source: PR Newswire