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Last updated on April 23, 2014 at 1:22 EDT

Lithium Market Becoming More Reliant on Batteries for Continued Strong Demand Growth

May 16, 2013

LONDON, May 16, 2013 /PRNewswire/ –

Rise in Consumption and Future Demand Driven by Lithium-ion Batteries

Roskill estimates that rechargeable batteries accounted for 27% of global lithium
consumption in 2012, up from 15% in 2007 and 8% in 2002. This end-use was responsible for
44% of the net increase in lithium consumption over the last ten years, and 70% over the
last five years. In the base-case growth scenario it is expected to contribute 75% of the
growth in forecast demand to 2017, when total demand for lithium is expected to reach
slightly over 238,000t lithium carbonate equivalent (LCE).

Other end-uses, including glass-ceramics, greases and polymers, have also shown high
rates of growth, but are predicted to moderate over the next five years as emerging
economy growth slows. The lithium industry is therefore becoming more reliant on
rechargeable batteries to sustain high rates of future demand growth. In addition, in the
period to 2017 Roskill forecasts that the main market driver for lithium-ion batteries
will gradually switch from portable consumer electronics to electric vehicles, especially
hybrid variants.

Reflecting the concentration of lithium-ion battery manufacturers and associated
cathode material producers in China, Japan and South Korea, the East Asia region has
become an increasingly important consumer of lithium products over the last decade. In
2012, East Asia accounted for 60% of total global consumption with Europe accounting for a
further 24% and North America 9%.

Growing Supply-side Pressure is Predicted to Stall Further Lithium Price Rises

Roskill’s analysis suggests that the price of technical-grade lithium carbonate, the
main product produced and consumed in the lithium market, recovered some of its global
economic downturn losses as the market tightened in 2012, averaging US$5,300/t CIF, up 15%
from 2010. This is below the 2007 peak of US$6,500/t, but well above the US$2,000-3,000/t
levels seen in the early 2000s.

Lithium extraction, which totalled over 168,000t LCE in 2012, is undertaken
predominately in Australia, Chile, Argentina and China, with roughly half of lithium
output from hard rock sources and half from brine. Production is dominated by Talison
Lithium in Australia, SQM and Rockwood Lithium in Chile, and FMC in Argentina. Just over
two-thirds of lithium minerals extracted in Australia are processed into downstream
chemical products in China, where producers such as Tianqi Lithium (who recently acquired
Talison to secure a captive supply of mineral feedstock) operate mineral conversion
plants.

Galaxy Resources commissioned a new 17,000tpy LCE mineral conversion plant in China in
2012. Canada Lithium is in the process of commissioning a 20,000tpy LCE plant in Quebec
and several existing Chinese mineral conversion plants are also expanding capacity. FMC
has increased brine-based processing capacity by a third in Argentina, while nearby
Orocobre is also constructing a new brine-based operation due to be completed in 2014. In
addition, Rockwood Lithium plans to complete a 20,000tpy LCE expansion in Chile in 2014.
Combined, this additional capacity totals just under 100,000tpy LCE, enough to meet
forecast demand to 2017.

As the opening of new and expanded capacity is concentrated over the next two years,
Roskill forecasts that the lithium market could witness increased competition and
supply-side pressure on pricing, with prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate
potentially falling back to around US$5,000/t CIF in 2014.

Lithium: Market Outlook to 2017 (12th edition)is available at a price of GBP4900 /
US$7900 / EUR6200 from Roskill Information Services Ltd, 54 Russell Road, London SW19 1QL
ENGLAND.

Tel: +44-(0)20-8417-0087. Fax +44-(0)20-8417-1308.

Email: info@roskill.co.uk Web: http://www.roskill.com/lithium

Note to editors

The report contains 426 pages, 245 tables and 99 figures. It provides a detailed
review of the industry, with subsections on the activities of the leading producing
companies. It also analyses consumption, trade and prices.

Table of Contents

Page

1. Summary 1

2. Lithium Mineralogy, Occurrences and Reserves 10

2.1 Occurrence of lithium 10

2.1.1 Lithium minerals 10

2.1.2 Lithium clays 12

2.1.3 Lithium brines 12

2.2 Lithium reserves 14

3. Lithium mining and processing 16

3.1 Extraction and processing of lithium brines 17

3.1.1 Other methods of brine extraction 20

3.2 Mining and processing of lithium minerals 21

3.3 Processing lithium mineral concentrates to lithium compounds 23

3.4 Processing lithium bearing clays into lithium compounds 26

3.5 Lithium compounds and chemicals 27

3.6 Production costs 30

4. Production of lithium 34

4.1 Lithium production by source 35

4.1.1 Production of Lithium Minerals 37

4.1.2 Production from Lithium Brines 39

4.1.3 Production of lithium compounds from mineral conversion 41

4.1.4 Production of downstream lithium chemicals 43

4.2 Outlook for production capacity of lithium to 2017 44

4.2.1 Outlook for production capacity of lithium minerals 45

4.2.2 Outlook for lithium production capacity from brines 48

4.2.3 Outlook on lithium compound production from mineral conversion 51

4.3 Forecast production of lithium to 2017 52

5. Review of lithium producing countries 55

5.1 Afghanistan 55

5.2 Argentina 56

5.2.1 FMC Litihum (MineradelAltiplano S.A.) 58

5.2.2 ADY Resources 59

5.2.3 Lithium Americas 61

5.2.4 Galaxy Resources (Lithium 1) 66

5.2.4.1 Sal de Vida Project 66

5.2.4.2 James Bay Hard-rock Lithium Project 68

5.2.5 Orocobre Ltd. 69

5.2.5.1 Salar de Olaroz 71

5.2.5.2 Salinas Grandes (Cangrejillo) 74

5.2.5.3 Guayatoyoc Project 74

5.2.5.4 Cauchari Project 75

5.2.6 Rodinia Lithium Inc. 76

5.2.6.1 Rodinia Lithium USA 78

5.2.7 Marifil Mines Ltd. 78

5.2.8 International Lithium Corporation 79

5.2.9 Other prospects for Lithium Production 79

5.3 Australia 80

5.3.1 Talison Lithium 82

5.3.1.1 Resources and Reserves 82

5.3.1.2 Production 85

5.3.1.3 Products 86

5.3.2 Galaxy Resources Ltd. 87

5.3.2.1 Reserves and Resources 88

5.3.2.2 Production 90

5.3.3 Reed Resources Ltd. 91

5.3.4 Altura Mining Ltd. 92

5.3.5 Artemis Resources 93

5.3.6 Amerilithium 93

5.3.7 Reward Minerals 93

5.4 Austria 93

5.5 Belgium 94

5.6 Bolivia 96

5.6.1 Salar de Uyuni 97

5.6.2 Salar de Coipasa 99

5.6.3 New World Resource Corp. 99

5.7 Brazil 100

5.7.1 CompanhiaBrasileira de Litio 102

5.7.2 Arqueana de Minerios e Metais Ltda. 103

5.7.3 Advance Metallurgical Group (AMG) 104

5.8 Canada 104

5.8.1 Lithium resources in Canada 105

5.8.2 Canadian trade in lithium 107

5.8.3 Past producers of lithium in Canada 108

5.8.3.1 Tantalum Mining Corp. of Canada Ltd. (TANCO) 108

5.8.4 Potential new producers of lithium in Canada 109

5.8.4.1 Canada Lithium Corp. 109

5.8.4.2 Nemaska Lithium 112

5.8.4.3 Avalon Rare Metals Inc. 115

5.8.4.4 Perilya Limited 116

5.8.4.5 Rock Tech Lithium Inc. 117

5.8.4.6 Critical Elements Corporation 120

5.8.4.7 Glen Eagle Resources Inc. 120

5.8.4.8 Aben Resources Ltd. 121

5.8.4.9 Toxco Inc. Canada 122

5.8.4.10 Other Canadian Lithium Projects 122

5.9 Chile 126

5.9.1 Chilean lithium reserves 127

5.9.2 Chilean lithium production 127

5.9.3 Special Lithium Operations Contracts (CEOLs) 128

5.9.4 SociedadQuimica y Minera 129

5.9.4.1 Reserves and Resources 130

5.9.4.2 Production 131

5.9.4.3 Products 132

5.9.4.4 Markets 134

5.9.4.5 Exports 135

5.9.5 Rockwood Litihum (Salar de Atacama and La Negra Plant) 136

5.9.6 Simbalik Group 138

5.9.7 Li3 Energy Inc. 139

5.9.7.1 Maricunga Property 139

5.9.7.2 Li3 Energy Peruvian Projects 141

5.9.8 First Potash Corp. 141

5.9.9 CODELCO 142

5.9.10 Mammoth Energy Group Inc. 142

5.9.11 Lomiko Metals Inc. 143

5.9.12 Errazuriz Lithium 143

5.9.13 Exports of litihum from Chile 143

5.10 China 146

5.10.1 Chinese reserves of lithium 147

5.10.1.1 Lithium Mineral Reserves 147

5.10.1.2 Lithium Brine Reserves 148

5.10.2 Production of lithium 149

5.10.2.1 Mineral Production 150

5.10.2.2 Brine Production 151

5.10.2.3 Lithium Chemicals and Metal Production 152

5.10.3 Chinese trade in lithium 155

5.10.4 Chinese lithium brine producers 157

5.10.4.1 Tibet Lithium New Technology Development Co. Ltd. 157

5.10.4.2 Qinghai CITIC Guoan Technology Development Co. Ltd. 159

5.10.4.3 Qinghai Salt Lake Industry Co. Ltd. 160

5.10.4.4 Qinghai Lanke Lithium Industry Co. Ltd. 161

5.10.4.5 Tibet Sunrise Mining Development Ltd. 162

5.10.4.6 China MinMetals Non-Ferrous Metals Co. Ltd 163

5.10.5 Chinese lithium mineral producers 163

5.10.5.1 Fujian Huamin Import & Export Co. Ltd. 163

5.10.5.2 YichunHuili Industrial Co. Ltd. 164

5.10.5.3 GanZiRongda Lithium Co., Ltd. 164

5.10.5.4 Sichuan HidiliDexin Mineral Industry 165

5.10.5.5 Xinjiang Non-Ferrous Metals (Group) Ltd. 166

5.10.6 Chinese lithium mineral producers with mineral conversion capacity 166

5.10.6.1 Jiangxi Western Resources Lithium Industry 166

5.10.6.2 Sichuan Aba Guangsheng Lithium Co. Ltd. 167

5.10.6.3 Minfeng Lithium Co. Ltd. 167

5.10.6.4 Sichuan Ni&CoGuorun New Materials Co. Ltd. 168

5.10.7 Chinese mineral conversion plants 169

5.10.7.1 Sichuan Tianqi Lithium Shareholding Co. Ltd. 169

5.10.7.2 Galaxy Resources (Jiangsu Lithium Carbonate Plant) 171

5.10.7.3 General Lithium (Haimen) Corp. 172

5.10.7.4 China Non-Ferrous Metal Import & Export Xinjiang Corp. 173

5.10.7.5 Sichuan State Lithium Materials Co. Ltd. 174

5.10.7.6 Jiangxi Ganfeng Lithium Co. Ltd. 174

5.10.7.7 Sichuan Chenghehua Lithium Technology Co. Ltd. 176

5.10.8 Chinese lithium chemical producers 176

5.10.9 Specialist lithium bromide producers 177

5.10.10 Specialist lithium metal producers 178

5.11 Czech Republic 179

5.12 Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) 179

5.13 Finland 180

5.13.1 KeliberOy 180

5.13.2 Nortec Minerals Corp. 181

5.13.3 Leviakangas Deposit 182

5.13.4 Syvajarvi Deposit 182

5.14 France 182

5.15 Germany 184

5.15.1 Rockwood Lithium (Langelsheim Plant) 185

5.15.2 Helm AG 185

5.15.3 Lithium exploration in Germany 185

5.16 Greece 186

5.17 India 186

5.17.1 FMC India Private Ltd. 188

5.17.2 Rockwood Lithium 188

5.18 Ireland 189

5.19 Israel 189

5.20 Japan 190

5.21 Kazakhstan 192

5.22 Mali 193

5.23 Mexico 193

5.23.1 LitioMex S.A. de C.V. (PieroSutti S.A. de C.V.) 193

5.23.2 First Potash Corp. (Mexico) 195

5.23.3 Bacanora Minerals Ltd. 195

5.24 Mongolia 196

5.25 Mozambique 196

5.26 Namibia 197

5.27 Netherlands 198

5.28 Portugal 199

5.28.1 SociedadMineira de Pegmatites 200

5.29 Russia 200

5.29.1 Russian Lithium Reserves and Resources 201

5.29.2 Russian Lithium Production 202

5.29.2.1 JSC Chemical and Metallurgical Plant 202

5.29.2.2 JSC Novosibirsk Chemical Concentration Plant 203

5.29.3 Russian Imports and Exports of Lithium 204

5.30 Serbia 205

5.31 South Africa 206

5.32 South Korea 206

5.33 Spain 207

5.33.1 Minera Del Duero 208

5.33.2 Solid Resources Ltd. 209

5.34 Taiwan 209

5.35 Tajikistan 210

5.36 Turkey 210

5.37 UK 211

5.38 Ukraine 212

5.39 USA 212

5.39.1 Trade in lithium to/from the USA 213

5.39.2 Rockwood Lithium (Chemetall Group) 214

5.39.2.1 Silver Peak, Kings Mountain and New Johnsonville operations (USA) 215

5.39.3 FMC Corporation 216

5.39.3.1 FMC Lithium 217

5.39.3.2 Other FMC Corporation facilities 218

5.39.4 Western Lithium Corporation 219

5.39.5 Simbol Materials Corp. 222

5.39.6 Albemarle Corporation 223

5.39.7 Toxco Inc. 223

5.39.8 AusAmerican Mining Corp. Ltd. 223

5.39.9 Other USA Companies 224

5.40 Uzbekistan 226

5.41 Zimbabwe 226

5.41.1 Bikita Minerals Ltd 227

5.41.2 Zimbabwe Mining Development Corporation 228

5.41.3 Premier African Minerals 228

5.41.4 Cape Range Ltd. 229

6. International trade in lithium 230

6.1 Trade in lithium carbonate 230

6.2 Trade in lithium hydroxide and oxides 233

6.3 Trade in lithium chloride 236

6.4 Trade in mineral concentrates 237

6.5 Trade in lithium brines 238

7. Consumption of lithium 239

7.1 Consumption of lithium by end-use 239

7.2 Consumption of lithium by country/region 243

7.3 Consumption of lithium by product 245

7.4 Outlook for consumption of lithium by end-use 247

7.5 Outlook for lithium consumption by product 251

8. Use of lithium in rechargeable batteries 253

8.1 Types of rechargeable batteries 253

8.1.1 Lithium-ion batteries 254

8.1.2 Lithium metal polymer batteries 256

8.1.3 Lithium-sulphur batteries 256

8.1.4 Lithium-air batteries 258

8.1.5 NiMH and NiCd batteries 258

8.2 Production of rechargeable batteries 258

8.2.1 Producers of rechargeable lithium batteries 261

8.2.2 Producers of nickel metal hydride batteries 262

8.3 Production of rechargeable lithium battery materials 262

8.3.1 Producers of rechargeable lithium battery materials 264

8.3.1.1 Cathode materials 264

8.3.1.2 Electrolyte salts 267

8.3.1.3 Anode materials 268

8.4 Consumption of rechargeable lithium batteries 268

8.4.1 Computing, communication and consumer (3C) market 269

8.4.2 Power devices and motive power 270

8.4.3 Heavy duty applications 272

8.4.4 Transportation 272

8.5 Consumption of NiMH and NiCd batteries 274

8.6 Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries 274

8.7 Outlook for demand for rechargeable batteries 278

8.8 Outlook for consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries 281

9. Use of lithium in ceramics 284

9.1 Use of lithium in ceramics 284

9.2 Production and consumption of ceramics 286

9.2.1 Ceramic tiles 287

9.2.1.1 Producers of ceramic tiles 289

9.2.2 Sanitaryware 291

9.2.2.1 Producers of sanitaryware 291

9.2.3 Tableware 293

9.2.3.1 Producers of tableware 294

9.2.4 Cookware and bakeware 295

9.3 Production and consumption of glazes and enamels 295

9.3.1 Producers of glazes and enamels 297

9.4 Outlook for ceramics production and consumption 298

9.5 Consumption of lithium in ceramics 299

9.5.1 Outlook for lithium demand in ceramics 300

10. Use of lithium in glass-ceramics 302

10.1 Use of lithium in glass-ceramics 302

10.2 Production and consumption of glass-ceramics 304

10.2.1 Producers of glass-ceramics 305

10.3 Consumption of lithium in glass-ceramics 306

11. Use of lithium in lubricating grease 309

11.1 Types of lubricating grease 309

11.2 Production of grease 311

11.2.1 Producers of lithium grease 314

11.3 Consumption of lithium greases 317

11.4 Consumption of lithium in greases 320

11.4.1 Outlook for demand for lithium in greases 321

12. Use of lithium in glass 323

12.1 Use of lithium in glass 323

12.2 Production and consumption of glass 325

12.2.1 Container glass 326

12.2.2 Fibreglass 329

12.2.3 Speciality glass 330

12.3 Consumption of lithium in glass 330

12.3.1 Outlook for demand for lithium in glass 331

13. Use of lithium in metallurgical powders 333

13.1 Continuous casting 333

13.1.1 Producers of continuous casting mould powders 334

13.1.2 Continually cast steel production 334

13.1.3 Consumption of continuous casting mould powders 335

13.1.4 Consumption of lithium in continuous casting mould powders 335

13.2 Traditional metal casting 337

13.3 Outlook for demand for lithium in casting powders 337

14. Use of lithium in polymers 338

14.1 Types of polymers 338

14.2 Production of polymers 340

14.2.1 Producers of polymers 342

14.3 Consumption of polymers 344

14.4 Consumption of lithium in polymers 348

14.4.1 Outlook for lithium demand in polymers 348

15. Use of lithium in air treatment 350

15.1 Absorption chillers 350

15.1.1 Production of absorption chillers 351

15.1.2 Producers of adsorption chillers 352

15.1.3 Producers of lithium bromide for absorption chillers 354

15.1.4 Consumption of lithium in absorption chillers 356

15.2 Dehumidification 357

15.2.1 Production of desiccant dehumidification systems 358

15.2.2 Producers of desiccant dehumidification systems 358

15.2.3 Consumption of lithium in desiccant dehumidifiers 359

15.3 Air purification 359

15.5 Outlook for demand for lithium in air treatment 360

16. Use of lithium in primary batteries 362

16.1 Types of primary batteries 362

16.2 Production of lithium primary batteries 365

16.2.1 Producers of lithium primary batteries 367

16.3 Trade in primary batteries 369

16.4 Production of primary lithium battery materials 370

16.4.1 Producers of lithium primary battery anodes 371

16.5 Consumption of lithium primary batteries 373

16.5.1 Outlook for primary lithium battery consumption 374

16.6 Consumption of lithium in primary batteries 374

16.6.1 Outlook for demand for lithium in primary batteries 377

17. Use of lithium in aluminium smelting 378

17.1 Process of aluminium smelting 378

17.2 Consumers of lithium in aluminium smelting 380

17.3 Consumption of lithium in aluminium smelting 382

17.3.1 Outlook for lithium demand in aluminium smelting 383

18. Minor end-uses for lithium 385

18.1 Sanitization 385

18.2 Organic synthesis 386

18.3 Construction 388

18.4 Alkyd resins 388

18.5 Alloys 391

18.5.1 Aluminium-lithium alloy 391

18.5.1.1 Producers of aluminium-lithium alloys 394

18.5.1.2 Applications for aluminium-lithium alloys 395

18.5.1.3 Consumption of lithium in aluminium-lithium alloys 398

18.5.1.4 Outlook for demand for lithium in aluminium-lithium alloys 398

18.5.2 Magnesium-lithium alloy 400

18.6 Electronics 400

18.7 Analytical agents 402

18.8 Dyestuffs 402

18.9 Metallurgy 402

18.10 Photographic industry 402

18.11 Welding fluxes 402

18.12 Electrochromic glass 403

18.13 Pharmaceuticals 403

18.13.1 Producers of lithium-based pharmaceuticals 404

18.13.2 Production and consumption of lithium-based pharmaceuticals 404

18.13.3 Consumption of lithium in pharmaceuticals 405

18.14 Speciality lithium inorganics 405

19. Prices of lithium 408

19.1 Technical-grade lithium mineral prices 409

19.2 Chemical-grade spodumene prices 412

19.3 Technical-grade lithium carbonate prices 413

19.4 Battery-grade lithium carbonate 415

19.5 Technical-grade lithium hydroxide prices 416

19.6 Battery-grade lithium hydroxide prices 418

19.7 Lithium chloride prices 419

19.8 Lithium metal prices 420

19.9 Outlook for lithium prices 421

19.9.1 Technical-grade lithium carbonate prices 421

19.9.2 Battery-grade lithium carbonate prices 424

19.9.3 Technical-grade lithium mineral prices 425

19.9.4 Chemical-grade spodumene prices 425

19.9.5 Lithium hydroxide prices 426

List of Tables

Page

Table 1: World: Forecast nominal and real prices for technical-grade lithium
carbonate, 2012 to 2017 8

Table 2: Properties of lithium 10

Table 3: Significant lithium minerals 11

Table 4: Major lithium bearing smectite group members 12

Table 5: Brine concentrations at selected deposits 13

Table 6: Lithium reserves by country 15

Table 7: Composition of standard lithium concentrates 22

Table 8: Specifications for lithium carbonate produced by SQM and Rockwood Lithium 28

Table 9: Specifications for lithium carbonate produced by other suppliers 28

Table 10: Battery grade lithium hydroxide product specifications of major producers 29

Table 11: Production of lithium by country and company, 2005 to 2012 35

Table 12: Capacity and production of lithium minerals by company, 2011 to 2012 39

Table 13: Capacity and production of lithium compounds from brine-based producers,
2011 to 2012 40

Table 14: Capacity and production of lithium mineral converters, 2011 to 2012 42

Table 15: Production of lithium compounds from minerals, 2005 to 2012 43

Table 16: Planned expansions as reported by existing lithium mineral producers to 2017
46

Table 17: Potential lithium mineral producers to 2017 47

Table 18: Planned expansions by existing lithium brine producers to 2017 49

Table 19: Potential new lithium brine projects to 2017 50

Table 20: Planned expansions to production capacity for existing and potential mineral
conversion plants 51

Table 21: Afghanistan: Spodumene bearing pegmatites identified in Nuristan,
Badakhshan, Nangarhar, Lagman and Uruzgan provinces 55

Table 22: Argentina: Exports of lithium carbonate, 2004 to 2012 57

Table 23: Argentina: Exports of lithium chloride, 2004 to 2012 58

Table 24:FMC: Brine reserves at the Salar del Hombre Muerto 58

Table 25: FMC: Production and value of lithium carbonate and chloride at the Salta
plant, Argentina 2005 to 2012 59

Table 26: ADY Resources: Salar del Rincon reserve estimation, 2007 60

Table 27: Lithium Americas: Lithium and potash resource estimation for the
Cauchari-Olaroz property, July 2012 61

Table 28: Lithium Americas: Lithium and potash reserve estimation for the
Cauchari-Olaroz property, July 2012 61

Table 29: Lithium Americas: Estimated capital costs for Lithium carbonate production
at the Cauchari-Olaroz project, July 2012 63

Table 30: Lithium Americas: Estimated operating costs for Cauchari-Olaroz project,
July 2012 65

Table 31: Galaxy Resources: Resource estimation for the Sal de Vida project, January
2012 66

Table 32: Galaxy Resources: Reserve estimate for the Sal de Vida project, April 2013
67

Table 33: Galaxy Resources: Estimated capital costs for Sal de Vida project, October
2011 68

Table 34: Orocobre: Agreements between Borax Argentina and other lithium companies 70

Table 35: Orocobre: Resource estimation for the Salar de Olaroz project, May 2011 71

Table 36: Orocobre: Assay results of first battery grade lithium carbonate product
from the Orocobre pilot plant 72

Table 37: Orocobre: Capital costs for 16,400tpy LCE operation at the Salar de Olaroz,
May 2011 73

Table 38: Orocobre: Operating costs for battery grade lithium carbonate for the Salar
de Olaroz, May 2011 73

Table 39: Orocobre: Resource estimation for the Salinas Grande project, April 2012 74

Table 40: Orocobre: Averaged assay results from pit sampling of brine at the
Guayatoyoc project 75

Table 41: Orocobre: Maiden resource estimation for the Salar de Cauchari project,
October 2012 75

Table 42: Rodinia Lithium: Salar de Diablillos resource estimation, March 2011 76

Table 43: Rodinia Lithium: Estimated capital costs for the Salar de Diablillos project
77

Table 44: Rodinia Lithium: Estimated operating costs for the Salar de Diablillos
project 77

Table 45: Rodinia Lithium: Other Argentine lithium projects 78

Table 46: Australia: Exports of mineral substances NES (excl. natural micaceous iron
oxides) 2005 to 2012 81

Table 47: Australia: Unit value of mineral substances NES (excl. natural micaeous iron
oxides) 2005 to 2011 81

Table 48: Talison Lithium: Resource estimation for the Greenbushes deposit, December
2012 83

Table 49: Talison Lithium: Lithium mineral reserve estimation for the Greenbushes
deposit, December 2012 83

Table 50: Talison Lithium: Li, K and Na content of brines, Salares 7 project saline
lakes 1998, (ppm) 84

Table 51: Talison Lithium: Li, K and Na content of brines, Salares 7 project saline
lakes 2009, (ppm) 84

Table 52: Talison Lithium: Production and sales of lithium mineral concentrates and
ores, 2005 to 2011 85

Table 53: Talison Lithium: Standard lithium mineral concentrate product specifications
87

Table 54: Galaxy Resources: Mount Cattlin mineral resource estimate, February 2011 89

Table 55: Galaxy Resources: Mount Cattlin mineral reserve estimate, December 2011 89

Table 56: Galaxy Resources: James Bay mineral resource estimate, November 2010 89

Table 57: Galaxy Resources: Mt. Cattlin mine and plant production, Q3 2010 – Q4 2011
90

Table 58: Reed Resources : Mt Marion resource estimation, July 2011 91

Table 59: Altura: Mineral resource estimation for the Pilgangoora lithium project,
October 2012 92

Table 60: Belgium: Trade is lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012 95

Table 61: Belgium: Trade in lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to 2012 96

Table 62: Salars and Lagunas in Bolivia identified by Gerencia Nacional de Recursos
Evaporiticos 97

Table 63: Results of sampling campaign by Universite de Liege and Universidad Tecnica
de Oruro at the Salar de Coipasa, 2002 99

Table 64: Assay data for brines intercepted during drilling at the Pastos Grandes
Salar, August 2011 100

Table 65: Brazil: Lithium resource estimation by mineral type, 2009 101

Table 66: Brazil: Trade in lithium chemicals and concentrates, 2004 to 2011 102

Table 67: CBL: Production of lithium concentrates and lithium salts, 2005 to 2011 102

Table 68: Arqueana: Production of lithium concentrates, 2008 to 2011 103

Table 69: Canada: Resources estimations for Canadian lithium projects 106

Table 70: Canada: Imports and exports of lithium compounds 2005 to 2012 108

Table 71: TANCO: Spodumene concentrate production 2005 to 2011 109

Table 72: Canada Lithium: Resource estimation for the Quebec Lithium project, December
2011 109

Table 73: Canada Lithium: Reserve estimation for the Quebec Lithium project, December
2011 110

Table 74: Canada Lithium: Estimated capital expenditure for Quebec Lithium project
(inc.LiOH and Na2SO4 plant costs), October 2012 111

Table 75 :Canada Lithium: Estimated operating expenditure for Quebec Lithium project,
October 2012 111

Table 76: Nemaska Lithium: Resource estimation for the Whabouchi project, June 2011
113

Table 77: Nemaska Lithium: Reserve estimation for the Whabouchi project, October 2012
113

Table 78: Avalon Rare Metals: Separation Rapids NI 43-101 resource and reserve
estimation, 1999 116

Table 79: Perilya Ltd: Mineral resource estimation for Moblan deposit, May 2011 117

Table 80: Rock Tech Lithium: Structure of the Georgia Lake project, November 2011 118

Table 81: Rock Tech Lithium: Updated mineral resource estimation for Georgia Lake
project, July 2012 119

Table 82: Glen Eagle: Resource estimation for Authier lithium property, January 2012
121

Table 83: Canada: Lithium exploration projects in Canada with uncompleted scoping
studies or PFS in October 2012 122

Table 84: Chile: Lithium carbonate, chloride and hydroxide production, 2004 to 2011
128

Table 85: Chile: Special operating licence bidders for the September 2012 auction 129

Table 86: SQM: Majority shareholders of SQM as of December 31st 2011 130

Table 87: SQM: Reserves within brines at the Salar de Atacama project 131

Table 88: SQM: Production, revenue and value per tonne of lithium compounds, 2003 to
2012 132

Table 89: SQM: Specifications for lithium carbonate 133

Table 90: SQM: Specifications for lithium hydroxide 134

Table 91: RWL: Gross tonnage, value and unit value of lithium carbonate exports, 2006
to 2012 137

Table 92: RWL: Gross tonnage, value and unit value of lithium chloride exports, 2006
to 2012 138

Table 93: Li3 Energy: Resource estimation for the Maricunga property, April 2012 140

Table 94: Chile: Exports of lithium carbonate by destination, 2004 to 2011 144

Table 95: Chile: Lithium carbonate export volume, value and unit price by company,
2005 to 2011 144

Table 96: Chile: Lithium chloride exports by destination, 2004 to 2012 145

Table 97: Chile: Lithium hydroxide exports by destination, 2004 to 2012 146

Table 98: China : Estimated resources and reserves of both lithium mineral and brine
operations and projects 148

Table 99: China: Production of lithium, 2003 to 2012 149

Table 100: China: Producers of lithium minerals, 2011 to 2012 151

Table 101: China: Production and capacity of Chinese lithium brine operations, 2011
152

Table 102: China: Mineral conversion plant production and production capacity, 2012
154

Table 103: China: Producers of battery grade lithium metal, 2012 154

Table 104: China: Imports and exports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012 155

Table 105: China: Imports and exports of lithium chloride, 2005 to 2012 156

Table 106: China: Imports and exports of lithium hydroxide, 2005 to 2012 157

Table 107: China: Imports and exports of lithium oxide, 2005 to 2012 157

Table 108: Tibet Lithium New Technology Development: Lithium production, 2010 to 2012
158

Table 109: Qinghai CITIC: Lithium carbonate production, 2008 to 2012 160

Table 110: Dangxiongcuo reserve estimation from 2006 qualifying report 163

Table 111: Jiangxi Western Resources: Lithium Production, 2010 167

Table 112: Sichuan Tianqi: Production and sales of lithium products, 2010 to 2011 169

Table 113: Galaxy Resources: Battery grade lithium carbonate chemical specifications
172

Table 114: KeliberOy: Claims, reservation and mining concessions for lithium projects
held by Keliber in Finland, 2012 181

Table 115: France: Imports and exports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012 183

Table 116: France: Imports and exports of lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to 2012
184

Table 117: Germany: Imports and exports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012 184

Table 118: India: Trade in lithium hydroxide and oxides, 2005 to 2012 187

Table 119: India: Trade in lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012 187

Table 120: India: Producers of lithium chemicals 188

Table 121: Japan: Trade in lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012 190

Table 122: Japan: Trade in lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to 2012 191

Table 123: Mexico: LitioMex S.A. concessions and resource estimations 194

Table 124: Namibia: Production of lithium minerals, 1990 to 1998 197

Table 125: Netherlands: Trade in lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012 198

Table 126: Netherlands: Trade in lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to 2012 199

Table 127: SociedadMineira de Pegmatites: Production of Lithium, 2004 to 2012 200

Table 128: Russia: Deposits of lithium 201

Table 129: Russia: Imports of lithium carbonate, 2002 to 2012 204

Table 130: Russia: Exports of lithium hydroxide, 2002 to 2012 204

Table 131: Russia: Imports of lithium hydroxide, 2002 to 2012 205

Table 132: South Korea: Trade in lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012 207

Table 133: South Korea: Trade in lithium hydroxide, 2005 to 2012 207

Table 134: Spain: Imports of lithium compounds, 2005 to 2012 208

Table 135: Minera Del Duero: Production of lepidolite in Spain, 2003 to 2011 208

Table 136: Inferred mineral resource estimation for the Doade-Presquerias project,
October 2011 209

Table 137: Taiwan: Imports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012 210

Table 138: UK: Imports of lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxides and oxides 2005 to
2012 211

Table 139: USA: Imports and exports of lithium carbonate 2005 to 2012 213

Table 140: USA: Imports and exports of lithium oxide and hydroxide 2005 to 2012 214

Table 141: FMC: Product range 218

Table 142: WLC: Resource estimation for the Kings Valley project, January 2012 219

Table 143: WLC: Reserve estimation for the Kings Valley project, December 2011 220

Table 144: WLC: Estimated operating and capital costs for ‘Case 1′ and ‘Case 2′
scenarios at the Kings Valley project. 221

Table 145: USA: Lithium exploration projects yet to reach scoping study or PFS stage
in development 224

Table 146: Zimbabwe: South African imports of mineral substances from Zimbabwe, 2005
to 2012 227

Table 147: Bikita Minerals: Mine production and lithium content 2003 to 2011 228

Table 148: World: Total exports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012 230

Table 149: World: Total imports of lithium carbonate, 2005 to 2012 232

Table 150: World: Total exports of lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to 2012 234

Table 151: World: Total imports of lithium hydroxide and oxide, 2005 to 2012 236

Table 152: World: Major importers and exporters of lithium chloride, 2005 to 2012 237

Table 153: World: Exports of lithium minerals by major lithium mineral producing
nations (excl. China), 2005 to 2012 238

Table 154: Chile: Exports of lithium chloride brine1 by SQM to China, 2005 to 2012 238

Table 155: World: Consumption of lithium by end-use, 2002, 2007 and 2012 240

Table 156: World: Estimated consumption of lithium by country/region, 2002, 2007 and
2012 244

Table 157: World: Consumption of lithium by end-use, by product, 2012 246

Table 158: World: Forecast consumption of lithium by end-use, 2012 to 2017 248

Table 159: Japan: Producers of lithium-ion battery cathode materials, 2012 265

Table 160: South Korea: Producers of lithium-ion battery cathode materials, 2012 265

Table 161: China: Producers of lithium-ion battery cathode materials, 2012 266

Table 162: World: Producers of lithium salts for electrolytes, 2012 267

Table 163: World: Lithium battery consumption in 3C products, 2012 269

Table 164: World: Lithium battery consumption in power devices and motive power, 2012
271

Table 165: World: Lithium battery consumption in heavy duty applications, 2012 272

Table 166: World: Lithium battery consumption in transport applications, 2012 274

Table 167: World: Lithium consumption in rechargeable lithium batteries end-use, 2012
275

Table 168: World: Lithium consumption in NiMH and NiCd batteries, 2012 275

Table 169: World: Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries by type, 2007 to
2012 277

Table 170: Japan: Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries, 2007 to 2012 277

Table 171: World: Consumption of lithium in rechargeable batteries by country, 2007 to
2012 278

Table 172: World: Rechargeable lithium battery demand by market, 2012 and 2017 278

Table 173: World: Comparison of EV production estimates in 2017 by industry consultant
280

Table 174: World: Forecast rechargeable battery consumption in EVs, 2017 281

Table 175: World: Lithium consumption in rechargeable lithium batteries by end-use,
2017 281

Table 176: World: Forecast demand for lithium in rechargeable lithium batteries, 2012
to 2017 282

Table 177: World: Forecast demand for lithium in rechargeable batteries by battery
type, 2012 to 2017 282

Table 178: World: Forecast demand for lithium in rechargeable batteries by product
type, 2007 to 2012 283

Table 179: Typical whiteware body compositions 285

Table 180: World: Production of ceramic tiles by leading country, 2007 to 2012 287

Table 181: World: Consumption of ceramic tiles by leading countries, 2007 to 2011 289

Table 182: World: Leading ceramic tile manufacturing companies, 2010 290

Table 183: World: Leading sanitaryware manufacturing companies, 2010 292

Table 184: World: Consumption of lithium in ceramics, 2012 300

Table 185: World: Consumption of lithium in ceramics, 2007 to 2012 300

Table 186: World: Forecast demand for lithium in ceramics, 2012 to 2017 301

Table 187: Glass-ceramic matrices 302

Table 188: Compositions of commercial glass-ceramics 303

Table 189: Japan: Consumption of lithium carbonate in glass-ceramics, 2007 to 2012 306

Table 190: World: Consumption of lithium in glass-ceramics by end-use and product
type, 2012 307

Table 191: World: Consumption of lithium in glass-ceramics, 2007 to 2012 307

Table 192: World: Forecast demand for lithium in glass-ceramics, 2012 to 2017 308

Table 193: Properties of commercial greases 311

Table 194: World: Producers of lubricating grease 315

Table 195: World: Forecast demand for lithium in greases, 2012 to 2017 322

Table 196: Typical batch compositions for glass by type 323

Table 197: Main sources of lithium used in glass 324

Table 198: EU: Production of glass by type, 1998 to 2012 328

Table 199: USA: Production of container glass, 1999 to 2008 328

Table 200: Typical chemical composition of types of textile-grade fibreglass 329

Table 201: World: Estimated consumption of lithium in glass, 2012 331

Table 202: World: Consumption of lithium in glass, 2007 to 2012 331

Table 203: World: Forecast demand for lithium in glass, 2012 to 2017 332

Table 204: World: Consumption of lithium in continuous casting mould powders, 2007 to
2012 336

Table 205: Japan: Consumption of lithium in fluxes, 2007 to 2012 336

Table 206: World: Forecast demand for lithium in casting powders, 2012 to 2017 337

Table 207: Microstructure of different types of polybutadienes 339

Table 208: World: Producers of SSBR, BR and SBC, 2012 343

Table 209: World: Planned new/expanded SBR, BR and SBC plants 344

Table 210: World: Forecast demand for lithium in synthetic rubber and thermoplastics,
2011 to 2017 349

Table 211: World: Capacity for lithium bromide production, end-2012 355

Table 212: Japan: Consumption of lithium bromide, 2007 to 2012 356

Table 213: World: Forecast demand for lithium in air treatment, 2012 to 2017 361

Table 214: Characteristics of primary lithium batteries 363

Table 215: Japan: Production of primary batteries by type, 1998 to 2012 367

Table 216: World: Trade in lithium primary batteries, 2007 to 2011 369

Table 217: Primary lithium batteries and their material compositions 371

Table 218: Specifications for battery-grade lithium metal 371

Table 219: World: Producers of battery-grade lithium metal, end-2012 372

Table 220: Japan: Consumption of lithium in primary lithium batteries, 2007 to 2012
375

Table 221: Japan: Unit consumption of lithium in primary batteries, 2007 to 2012 375

Table 222: World: Imports of battery-grade lithium metal, 2007 to 2012 376

Table 223: World: Forecast demand for lithium in primary batteries, 2012 to 2017 377

Table 224: Effects of additives and temperatures on properties of molten cryolite 379

Table 225: World: Aluminium smelters using Soderberg technology, end-2012 381

Table 226: World: Forecast demand for lithium in aluminium smelting, 2012 to 2017 384

Table 227: World: Consumption of lithium in other end-uses, 2007, 2012 and 2017 385

Table 228: Examples of uses for lithium in organic synthesis 387

Table 229: Physical properties of Al-Li alloys 392

Table 230: Chemical composition of Al-Li alloys 393

Table 231: Use of Al-Li alloys in selected aircraft 397

Table 232: World: Forecast demand for lithium in aluminium-lithium alloys, 2012 to
2017 399

Table 233: Properties of lithium niobate and lithium tantalite 401

Table 234: Applications for SAW components 401

Table 235: Applications for speciality inorganic lithium compounds 406

Table 236: Prices of lithium minerals, 2000-2013 410

Table 237: Comparison of prices for lithium minerals and carbonate, 2004 to 2012 411

Table 238: Comparison of prices for chemical-grade spodumene concentrate and lithium
carbonate, 2004 to 2012 412

Table 239: Comparison of technical- and battery- grade lithium carbonate prices, 2004
to 2012 416

Table 240: Average values of exports/imports of lithium oxides and hydroxides by
leading exporting/importing country, 2004 to 2012 417

Table 241: Average values of exports of lithium chloride by leading producing country,
2004 to 2012 420

Table 242: Average values of exports of lithium metal by leading producing country,
2004 to 2012 421

Table 243: World: Forecast nominal and real prices for technical-grade lithium
carbonate, 2012 to 2017 423

Table 244: World: Forecast nominal prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate and
chemical-grade lithium minerals, 2012 to 2017 425

Table 245: World: Forecast nominal prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate and
technical-grade lithium hydroxide, 2012 to 2017 426

List of Figures

Figure 1: Lithium product flow chart and main end-uses, 2012 1

Figure 2: Consumption of lithium by end-use, 2000 to 2012 2

Figure 3: Production of lithium by country, 2000 to 2012 4

Figure 4: Price history of lithium carbonate, 1990 to 2012 6

Figure 5: World: Forecast real prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate, 2012 to
2017 9

Figure 6: Overview of lithium production 16

Figure 7: Extraction and processing of brines from the Salar de Atacama, Chile and
Silver Peak, Nevada by Rockwood Lithium 18

Figure 8: Flow sheet showing the processing of brines at Salar de Carmen by SQM 19

Figure 9: Simplified flow sheet of the Li SX(TM) method patented by Bateman Lithium
Projects 21

Figure 10: Simplified mineral concentrate production flow sheet for a typical hard
rock lithium operation 22

Figure 11: Simplified flow sheet for lithium carbonate production from spodumene
mineral concentrate using the acid-roast method 24

Figure 12: Simplified flow sheet for lithium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide
monohydrate production from spodumene mineral concentrate using the lime-roast method 25

Figure 13: Simplified flow sheet for lithium carbonate production from hectorite clay
developed by Western Lithium 27

Figure 14: Mining and milling costs for hard rock lithium mineral operations/projects
31

Figure 15: Lithium carbonate cash operating costs, 2012 32

Figure 16: Potential new producers production costs 33

Figure 17: World: Production of lithium by country, 2000 to 2012 34

Figure 18: Production of lithium from mineral and brine sources, 2005 to 2012 37

Figure 19: Production of lithium minerals by company, 2012 38

Figure 20: Production of lithium from brines by country, 2005 to 2012 40

Figure 21: Planned production capacity and consumption for lithium, 2012 to 2017 45

Figure 22: Forecast production and consumption of lithium, 2012 to 2017 54

Figure 23: Pilot plant flow sheet developed for Lithium Americas at SGS Mineral
Services 62

Figure 24: Brazil: Production of Lithium products 2005 to 2010 101

Figure 25: SQM: Lithium sales by destination 2011, 2009, 2007 and 2005 135

Figure 26: SQM: Destination of lithium carbonate exports, 2006 to 2011 136

Figure 27: China: Location of mineral conversion and lithium chemical/metal plants in
China, 2012 153

Figure 28: Japan: Imports of lithium carbonate, hydroxide & oxide and combined LCE,
2005 to 2012 191

Figure 29: World: Leading exporters of lithium carbonate, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012
231

Figure 30: World: Leading importers of lithium carbonate, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012
233

Figure 31: World: Leading exporters of lithium hydroxide and oxides, 2006, 2008, 2010
and 2012 235

Figure 32: World: Growth in consumption of lithium, 2000 to 2012 239

Figure 33: World: Consumption of lithium by end-use, 2012 240

Figure 34: World: Consumption of lithium by end-use, 2000 to 2012 241

Figure 35: World: Consumption of lithium by end-use, 2000 to 2012 241

Figure 36: World: Estimated consumption of lithium by country/region, 2002, 2007 and
2012 244

Figure 37: World: Consumption of lithium by product, 2012 245

Figure 38: World: Consumption of lithium by type, 2000 to 2012 247

Figure 39: World: Historical and forecast consumption of lithium by end-use, 2007 to
2017 248

Figure 40: World: Forecast consumption of lithium by form, 2007, 2012 and 2017 252

Figure 41: Specific energy and energy density of rechargeable batteries 253

Figure 42: Lithium-ion battery schematic 254

Figure 43: Lithium metal polymer battery schematic 256

Figure 44: Lithium-sulphur cell schematic 257

Figure 45: Lithium-air cell schematic 258

Figure 46: World: Production of rechargeable batteries1, 1995 to 2012 259

Figure 47: World: Production of rechargeable batteries1, 1995 to 2012 260

Figure 48: World: Rechargeable lithium battery production by country, 2000 to 2012 260

Figure 49: Lithium-ion battery materials value chain 263

Figure 50: World: Production of lithium cathode materials by type, 2000 to 2012 264

Figure 51: World: Market for rechargeable lithium batteries by end-use, 2002, 2007 and
2012 268

Figure 52: World: Market for rechargeable lithium batteries by end-use, 2012 269

Figure 53: World: Production of rechargeable batteries and consumption of lithium,
2000 to 2012 276

Figure 54: World: Market for rechargeable lithium batteries by end-use, 2002 to 2017
279

Figure 55: World: Ceramic tile production by region, 2007 and 2012 288

Figure 56: World: Sanitaryware production by region/country, 2010 291

Figure 57: World: Production of tableware by country/region, 2008 293

Figure 58: USA: Shipments of cookware, bakeware and kitchenware, 2001 to 2010 295

Figure 59: World: Shipments of white goods by region, 2000 to 2020 296

Figure 60: World: Year-on-year growth in construction spending and GDP, 2000 to 2017
298

Figure 61: World: Production of lubricating grease by additive type, 2011 312

Figure 62: World: Production of lubricating grease by type, 2000 to 2012 313

Figure 63: World: Production of lithium grease by region/country and by type, 2000 and
2011 314

Figure 64: World: Output of automobiles by region, 2000 to 2012 318

Figure 65: World: Deliveries of commercial aircraft, 2000 to 2012 318

Figure 66: World: Shipbuilding deliveries, 2000 to 2012 319

Figure 67: World: Relative industrial and transport output and lithium grease
production, 2002 to 2011 320

Figure 68: World: Production of grease and consumption of lithium, 2000 to 2012 321

Figure 69: World: Estimated production of glass by type, 2012 326

Figure 70: World: Production of container glass by region/country, 2012 326

Figure 71: World: Consumption of glass packaging by region, 2011 327

Figure 72: World: Production of continuously cast steel by region, 1998 to 2012 335

Figure 73: World: Capacity for synthetic rubber production by country/region, 2012 340

Figure 74: World: Capacity for BR, ESBR and SSBR rubber by country/region, end-2011
341

Figure 75: World: SBC capacity by region/country, end-2010 341

Figure 76: World: Production of synthetic rubber by region, 1996 to 2011 342

Figure 77: World: Consumption of synthetic rubber by type, 2012 345

Figure 78: World: consumption of BR by end-use, 2010 346

Figure 79: World: Consumption of SBC by region/country, 2010 347

Figure 80: Consumption of SBC by end-use, 2007 347

Figure 81: World: Production of absorption chillers, 2003 to 2012 352

Figure 82: World: Consumption of lithium bromide in air treatment, 2001 to 2012 356

Figure 83: Specific energy and energy density of primary batteries 362

Figure 84: Primary and secondary battery gravimetric energy density 365

Figure 85: World: Production of primary lithium batteries by country, 1998 to 2012 366

Figure 86: Primary lithium battery schematics 370

Figure 87: World: Demand for lithium metal in primary batteries, 2000 to 2012 376

Figure 88: World: Aluminium output by type and lithium consumption, 2000 to 2012 383

Figure 89: World: Consumption of alkyd-based paints and coatings, 2010 390

Figure 90: Development of Al-Li alloys 392

Figure 91: World: Deliveries of commercial aircraft and lithium consumption, 2007 to
2019 399

Figure 92: Price history of lithium carbonate, 1990 to 2012 408

Figure 93: Compound annual prices of lithium minerals, 2000 to 2013 411

Figure 94: Prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate, 1999 to 2012 414

Figure 95: Prices for battery-grade lithium carbonate, 1999 to 2012 415

Figure 96: Comparison of lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate prices, 2000 to 2012
418

Figure 97: Japan: Quarterly average import value of lithium hydroxide from the USA,
2008 to 2012 419

Figure 98: World: Forecast nominal prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate, 2012
to 2017 423

Figure 99: World: Forecast real prices for technical-grade lithium carbonate, 2012 to
2017 424

For further information on this report, please contact Robert Baylis (
rbaylis@roskill.co.uk). To be added to our press distribution list, please contact
Isobel Jarvis (isobel@roskill.co.uk).

SOURCE Roskill Information Services


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