February 27, 2006
“Brokeback” wins gays place in Hollywood history
By Bob Tourtellotte
LOS ANGELES (Reuters) - For more than 100 years, mainstream
Hollywood movies largely shunned gay subjects, which were
either disregarded, closeted or dealt with by independent
in love, broke big at box offices and earned eight Oscar
nominations, including best film. It was a hit and Hollywood
loves a hit.
"Gay people are now living more honest and open lives and
that leads to others wanting to know more about our lives,"
said Neil Giuliano, president of the Gay & Lesbian Alliance
Against Defamation. "People want this product and we can
provide it in a compelling and powerful way that can be
Historians and experts divide Hollywood's portrayal of gay
life into three periods: years before the early 1930s
"production code;" self-censorship under the code until the
late 1960s; and the years since then as gays and lesbians have
been slowly accepted into mainstream culture.
The production code, also known as the Hays Code, was
devised by a forerunner of today's Motion Picture Association
of America and was strictly enforced by Hollywood's major
studios starting around 1934.
It set out general guidelines specifying that no film would
lower moral standards of an audience member and included
warnings against nudity and positive portrayals of crime and
Before the code, historians said movies showed no
depictions of gays or lesbians because they largely kept to
themselves and were ignored by mainstream society. As a result,
the movies also set them aside, reflecting the culture of the
"It was not so much keeping a secret. It was more like,
'How could you write about something that wasn't being written
about?"' said William Mann, author of "Behind the Screen: How
Gays and Lesbians Shaped Hollywood 1910-1969."
TO GAY, OR NOT TO GAY
Although the production code did not allow portrayals of
gay life, some male roles were often built around effeminate
personality traits. By association, the characters were deemed
homosexual, although such a distinction was never talked about,
said Jonathan Kuntz of the film and television school at the
University of California at Los Angeles.
Some actors such as Franklin Pangborn enjoyed careers
playing effeminate men and closeted homosexuals like Rock
Hudson could live in privacy and still take heterosexual roles.
"Sexuality is overtly talked about now but wasn't really in
those days," said Robert Osborne, author of "75 Years of Oscar:
The Official History of the Academy Awards."
The sexual revolution of late 1960s brought an end to the
production code, and in 1969 "Midnight Cowboy" the relationship
between Joe Buck (Jon Voight) and Enrico "Ratso" Rizzo (Dustin
Hoffman) was widely considered a love affair, although the two
never had sex on screen, as do the cowhands of "Brokeback."
"Midnight Cowboy" became a box-office hit and won the best
film Oscar, but what followed were film flops such as 1982's
"Making Love," which made "gay film" sound like "money loser"
to mainstream Hollywood. As a result, homosexual stories were
fodder for independent filmmakers and art-house cinemas.
In 1993, "Philadelphia" starred Tom Hanks as a gay man, won
Oscars and earned $206 million worldwide, but it was largely
seen as an AIDS movie, not a gay film.
In the late 1990s, gay television shows such as "Will &
Grace" and TV stars like Ellen DeGeneres helped mainstream
Hollywood get to a point where it could promote a film such as
"Brokeback," the experts said. Now, they expect the major
studios to be more accepting of gay stories and screenplays.
"I don't know if we're going to see any $200 million movies
built around a gay character but certainly this will spark
other films," Kuntz said.