News from the 97th Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) in Chicago
CHICAGO, NOV. 28, 2011 /PRNewswire/ —
Functional Brain Pathways Disrupted in Children with ADHD
Using functional MRI, researchers from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine have found abnormalities in the brains of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While previous studies have focused on impulsivity, this study looked at the inattention aspect of the disorder. The researchers studied 18 children with ADHD and 18 normal controls between the ages of nine and 15 and found that the children with ADHD used different pathways to process visual attention information. In addition, communication among brain regions was disrupted in the children with ADHD. Currently, there is no single test for diagnosing ADHD, which affects 5 to 8 percent of school-age children.
Restricted Calorie Diet Improves Heart Function in Obese Patients with Diabetes
Researchers from Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands have found that a restricted calorie diet improves heart function in obese patients with diabetes. For the study, 15 obese patients with type 2 diabetes were given a medically supervised diet of 500 calories daily for four months. After four months, their average body mass index (BMI) decreased from 35.3 to 27.5. In addition, their diastolic heart function improved, and the amount of fat around the heart decreased significantly. The diet also eliminated the need for insulin in all of the patients. After 14 months of follow-up on a regular diet, average BMI increased to 31.7, but fat around the heart increased only slightly, indicating that the beneficial effects of the diet last over the long term.
Integrated 3-D Imaging Facilitates Human Face Transplantation
Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center are improving human facial transplantation by combining multiple imaging exams with the same computer modeling techniques used in Hollywood blockbusters. The goal of reconstructive face transplant surgery is to restore form and function to the face in cases of devastating injury. Imaging exams–such as MRI, CT and tractography–help in patient selection, surgical planning and post-op assessment, while 3-D modeling offers critical insight into relationships between facial structures. The technique allows customization to the patient’s anatomy, so that the donor tissue fits precisely like a puzzle piece on the recipient’s face.
Researchers Use CT to Recreate Stradivarius Violin
A Minnesota radiologist and two violin makers used computed tomography (CT) to aid in the reproduction of a 1704 Betts Stradivarius violin worth millions of dollars. The process will allow modern musicians access to reproductions of the world’s most prized violins. The team converted more than 1,000 CT images into stereolithographic files. A computer-controlled router called a CNC machine read the files and carved the replica violin. CT was useful in measuring the wood density, size, shape, thickness and volume of the original violin, as well as identifying damage and previous repairs. Antonio Stradivari is regarded as history’s greatest violin maker. Only 650 Stradivarius violins are known to exist.
Tuesday RSNA news conferences focus on growth hormone treatment in obese women, brain injuries in soccer players, surprising breast cancer findings in women in their 40s, a virtual childbirth simulator and a network to give patients control over their medical imaging records.
SOURCE Radiological Society of North America (RSNA)