February 8, 2012
Are Brains to Blame for Weight Gain?
(Ivanhoe Newswire)– According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, about out of 3 U.S. adults are obese and that number continues to grow. Now some experts are looking at brains instead of bellies to find out why.
Diabetes researchers at the University of Cincinnati are drawing attention to the biological factors that contribute to the rising rates of obesity and exploring options to reduce body weight."While we don't usually think of it this way, body weight is regulated. How much we weigh is influenced by a number of biological systems, and this is part of what makes it so hard for people to lose weight and keep it off," Randy Seeley, PhD, director of the Cincinnati Diabetes and Obesity Center and author, at the University of Cincinnati, was quoted as saying.
"To understand the obesity epidemic, we must figure out how our environment alters these biological systems to encourage weight gain."
Seeley believes that the availability and consumption of calorically dense, high-fat foods is a big part of the environment that encourages weight gain. What we eat can alter the brain regions that are responsible for regulating body weight.
"Leptin is a key hormone that is secreted from fat tissue, or adipose tissue, and its main function is to inhibit appetite," Seeley said. "Via a number of molecular mechanisms, eating a high-fat diet reduces the actions of leptin in the brain. This miscommunication can lead to increased food intake and weight gain."
"Evolutionary speaking, we are designed to want to eat foods that are high in fat and gain weight because it made it easier to survive times when food was not available," Seeley was quoted as saying. "However, that is no longer a real concern since food is almost always available, but we still have a biological desire to eat these calorically dense foods. So, how do we intervene and change this drive?"
There are several main targets in successful therapeutic treatments for the population facing social, financial, and health resulting from obesity.
"The key issue is to find ways to take these biological systems that usually make it hard to lose weight and make them work for us to so that it is easier for obese individuals to lose weight," Seeley was quoted as saying. "As we understand the molecular interaction between what we eat and these brain circuits that regulate our body weight, we can design interventions that reduce the body weight that our bodies defend. This will mean that people trying to lose weight would be able to work with their biology rather than trying to use will power to overcome their biology that pushes them back to their obese state. Such an endeavor will ultimately require a wide range of scientists from different fields to reduce both the human and monetary costs of the obesity epidemic."
SOURCE: Cell Metabolism, February 7, 2012