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Salt Institute Disputes AHA Unrealistic Salt Statistic

March 26, 2013

“Mozaffarian study disrespectful of consumers,” says Salt Institute

Alexandria, VA (PRWEB) March 26, 2013

A recent attention-grabbing paper presented at the American Heart Association conference made the sensational claim that one in 10 Americans dies from eating too much salt. But according to Morton Satin, Vice President of Science and Research for the Salt Institute, “This misleading study did not measure any actual cardiovascular deaths related to salt intake, they simply made projections using a highly flawed statistical model. Even more shocking, the Mozaffarian, et al, paper advised a sodium intake level of 1,000 mg per day, an amount so low that it would put people in the low-salt danger zone, potentially leading to increased heart attacks, diabetes and early death.”

Multiple peer-reviewed studies (see references below) published to date demonstrate that when sodium intakes fall below 3,400 mg/day a rapid rise in plasma renin and aldosterone occurs and may result in insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, increased mortality from congestive heart failure and types I and II diabetes, more frequent cardiovascular events, cognition loss , stress, dehydration, and overall increased morbidity and mortality. Yet the authors excluded excluded these studies showing the health risks specifically related to low salt intake. “Salt reduction only slightly benefits a small number of hypersensitive individuals, who are better served with medication, while salt reduction could bring harm to the overall population according to 10 years of peer-reviewed research,” added Satin.

The fact is that international demographic figures on life expectancy reveal that those countries which consume the lowest salt intake have the shortest life expectancies while those with the highest salt diets, including the Mediterranean and Japanese diets, are considered to be the most heart-healthy. According to Satin, “The AHA is insisting that people cut their salt intake by 75 percent, an impossibly low figure that even the authors of this study admit no country anywhere in the world comes close to meeting.”

Several research studies have repeatedly shown that Americans already eat the right amount of sodium, about 3,500 mg However the US Federal Dietary Guidelines recommend a maximum of 2,300 mg for healthy adults and 1,500 mg for at risk groups and the hypersensitive. The authors of the study are calling for a 1,000 mg sodium diet as “optimal.” Both these recommendation put citizens well into the low-salt danger zone.

“The Mozaffarian study appears to be part of an agenda driven exercise far more rooted in sensationalist politics than in science and it deliberately ignores real scientific research to the great detriment of the health of the American consumer. The Salt Institute considers this misleading modeling exercise and resulting recommendation to be an embarrassment to the American Heart Association,” said Lori Roman, President of the Salt Institute.

References:

Alderman MH , Madhavan S, Ooi WL, Cohen H, Sealey JE, Laragh JH. Association of the Renin-Sodium Profile With the Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Hypertension. N. Engl. J. Med. 1991;324: 1098—1104

Garg R, Williams GH, Hurwitz S, Brown NJ, Hopkins PN, Adler GK. Low-Salt Diet Increases Insulin Resistance in Healthy Subjects. Metabolism. 2010: 60(7); 965-68.

Ruivo GF, Leandro SM, do Nascimento CA, et al. Insulin Resistance Due to Chronic Salt Restriction is Corrected by α and β Blockade and by l-arginineI. Physiology and Behavior. 2006; 88(4-5):364-70.

Nakandakare ER, Charf AM, Santos FC, et al. Dietary Salt Restriction Increases Plasma Lipoprotein and Inflammatory Marker Concentrations in Hypertensive Patients. Atherosclerosis. 2008; 200(2):410-16.

Paterna S, Parrinello G, Cannizzaro S, et al., Medium Term Effects of Different Dosage of Diuretic, Sodium, and Fluid Administration on Neurohormonal and Clinical Outcome in Patients With Recently Compensated Heart Failure,. Am. J. Cardiology. 2009;103(1):93-102.

Thomas MC, Moran J, Forsblom C, et al; for the FinnDiane Study Group. The Association between Dietary Sodium Intake, ESRD, and All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(4):861-866.

Ekinci EI, Clarke S, ThomasMC, et al. Dietary Salt Intake and Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:703-709.

Cohen HW, Hailpern SM, Alderman MH. Sodium Intake and Mortality Follow-Up in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J. Gen. Intern. Med. 2008;23(9):1297-302.

Renneboog B, Musch W, Vandemergel X, Manto MU, Mild Chronic Hyponatremia is Associated with Falls, Unsteadiness, and Attention Deficits. Am. J. of Med. 2006; 119: 71.el-71el 8.

Leshem M. Low dietary sodium is anxiogenic in rats. Physiol Behav (2011), doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.03.025

Khadeja Hendi and Micah Leshem. Salt appetite across generations: aged and middle-aged. 20th Ann Mtg Soc for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2012.

Stolarz-Skrzypek K, Kuznetsova T., Thijs L, et al. Fatal and Nonfatal Outcomes, Incidence of Hypertension, and Blood Pressure Changes in Relation to Urinary Sodium Excretion. JAMA. (2011);305(17):1777-85.

Graudal NA, Hubeck-Graudal T, Jurgens J. Effects of Low-Sodium Diet Vs High-Sodium Diet on Blood Pressure, Renin, Aldosterone, Catecholamines, Cholesterol and Triglyceride [Cochrane Review]. Am J Hypertens. 2012;25(1):1-15.

O’Donnell MJ, Yusuf S, Mente A, Gao P, Mann JF, Teo K, McQueen M, Sleight P, Sharma AM, Dans A, Probstfield J, Schmieder RE. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events, JAMA. 2011 Nov 23;306(20):2229-38.

DiNicolantonio JJ, Di Pasquale P, Taylor RS, Hackam DG. Low sodium versus normal sodium diets in systolic heart failure: systematic review and meta-analysis. Heart (2012). doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2012-302337

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The Salt Institute is a North American based non-profit trade association dedicated to advancing the many benefits of salt, particularly to ensure winter roadway safety, quality water and healthy nutrition.

For the original version on PRWeb visit: http://www.prweb.com/releases/prweb2013/3/prweb10565906.htm


Source: prweb



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