June 28, 2013
Ritalin Improves Brain Function In Cocaine Addicts
redOrbit Staff & Wire Reports - Your Universe Online
A single dose of Ritalin, a commonly prescribed drug used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), helps improve brain function in people addicted to cocaine, according to new research from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.
The study was published in the current issue of JAMA Psychiatry and found Ritalin, the brand name for methylphenidate, modified connectivity in certain brain circuits that underlie self-control and craving among cocaine-addicted individuals.
Previous research has shown oral methylphenidate improved brain function in cocaine users performing specific cognitive tasks, such as ignoring emotionally distracting words and resolving a cognitive conflict. Similar to cocaine, methylphenidate increases dopamine and norepinephrine activity in the brain. However, when administered orally, the drug takes longer to reach peak effect, consistent with a lower potential for abuse.
By extending dopamine's action, Ritalin enhances signaling to improve several cognitive functions, including information processing and attention.
"Orally administered methylphenidate increases dopamine in the brain, similar to cocaine, but without the strong addictive properties," said Rita Goldstein, Professor of Psychiatry at Mount Sinai, who led the research while at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in New York.
"We wanted to determine whether such substitutive properties, which are helpful in other replacement therapies such as using nicotine gum instead of smoking cigarettes or methadone instead of heroin, would play a role in enhancing brain connectivity between regions of potential importance for intervention in cocaine addiction."
Dr. Goldstein and her team recruited 18 cocaine-addicted participants, who were randomized to receive an oral dose of methylphenidate or placebo. The researchers used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the strength of connectivity in particular brain circuits known to play a role in addiction before and during peak drug effects. They also assessed each subject's severity of addiction to see if this had any bearing on the results.
The results showed methylphenidate decreased connectivity between areas of the brain that have been strongly implicated in the formation of habits, including compulsive drug seeking and craving. The scans also revealed methylphenidate strengthened connectivity between several brain regions involved in regulating emotions and exerting control over behaviors - connections previously reported to be disrupted in cocaine addiction.
"The benefits of methylphenidate were present after only one dose, indicating that this drug has significant potential as a treatment add-on for addiction to cocaine and possibly other stimulants," said Dr. Goldstein.
"This is a preliminary study, but the findings are exciting and warrant further exploration, particularly in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy or cognitive remediation."