June 19, 2008
Casinos Stay Open All Night for a Reason
By Bill Sones and Rich Sones Ph.D.
Question: Why do casinos stay open all night? Are there sound neuroscientific reasons for this?
Answer: You can bet on it. Evidence shows that sleep enhances memory, even just a brief nap of six minutes, says John Whitfield in Scientific American magazine.
A sleeping brain is not just on standby but runs through a complex suite of activities, such as "moving" short-term memories from the hippocampus over to the cortex for more durable storage. Thus slumbering helps the brain juggle new information, extracting the gist of it and combining it with the day's emotions.
This "executive thinking" is especially impaired by sleep loss as people become more mentally blinkered, less able to deal with novelty and to evaluate risk. Says sleep researcher Jim Horne of Loughborough University in England, "This of course is bad news for medics, shift workers, military commanders, and perhaps explains why casinos stay open at night."
Question: Plato takes his friend Aristotle, who has a strong philosophical streak, down to the waterfront to show off his new yacht. He's beaming with pride, but Aristotle one-ups him with, "Plato, I thought your new yacht was bigger than it is." How does Plato cleverly one-up his one-upper?
Answer: "No, Ari," he answers, "my yacht is not larger than it is. And I don't know many things in this world that could be. If you really find something bigger than itself, I'd love to see it!" (From British philosopher Bertrand Russell, author of "On Denoting")
Question: What's perhaps the most famous sci-fi movie prediction to actually come true?
Answer: It's more a "carryover" than a prophecy, as the classic backward countdown of "10 ... nine ... eight ..." as used by NASA before a spacecraft blasts off, first appeared in Fritz Lang's 1929 silent movie "Frau im Mond" ("Woman in the Moon"), says Sidney Perkowitz in "Hollywood Science." The cinematic spinoff then led to this dramatic pre-launch ritual finding its way deep into the culture of space travel.
For more examples, visit the Web site Technovelgy.com and scan its lists of more than 1,000 inventions and ideas predicted in science fiction stories. "Many have come to pass, not because science fiction writers are clairvoyant but because they extrapolate the scientific and social currents of their time."
Question: Commenting on the interstate migration brought about by the Great Depression of the 1930s, Oklahoman Will Rogers reportedly quipped: "When the Okies left Oklahoma and moved to California, they raised the intellectual level in both states." Here he was playing on the low regard for the Okies and the even lower regard for the "Wild West" Californians of the time. This quirk of statistical averages, where moving part of one set to another set raises the average values of both sets, came to be known as the "Will Rogers effect." Oddly enough, this turns up today in medical statistics. Can you say how?
Answer: As medical technology advances, improved detection of illness can lead to rapid reclassification of people from the class "healthy" to "diseased." Now since diseased people are removed from the ranks of the healthy, the average lifespan of the healthy group increases. But since the people newly classified as diseased tend to be less severely afflicted than those previously diagnosed, the average lifespan of the diseased group also increases. Based on this statistical quirk, overall life expectancy can appear to increase even if no treatments have improved! It's called "medical stage migration," where people are moved from one medical classification to another (from Julian Havil in "Nonplussed! Mathematical Proof of Implausible Ideas").
Send STRANGE questions to brothers Bill and Rich at [email protected]
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