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Remembering Pioneers Who Gave Their All ; in Association With NHS GUIDE TO LIFE

August 11, 2008

By HELEN RAE

The management company which oversees healthcare in the region has moved to new premises. Health Reporter HELEN RAE takes a look at the NHS pioneers who the building and its rooms have been named after

NHS North of Tyne has moved into its new headquarters at Newcastle Great Park.

The management company oversees Newcastle Primary Care Trust (PCT), North Tyneside PCT and Northumberland Care Trust.

The building has been named Bevan House in honour of Nye Bevan, the founder of the NHS.

The new address is NHS North of Tyne, Bevan House, 1 Esh Plaza, Sir Bobby Robson Way, Great Park, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE13 9BA.

We take a look at the people who the building and rooms have been named after.

MARIE CURIE

BORN: November 7 1867, Warsaw Poland.

DIED: July 4 1934, Sancellemoz, France

Marie Curie (born Maria Skodowska; also known as Maria Skodowska- Curie) was a physicist and chemist.

In 1891, she went to Paris to study physics and mathematics at the Sorbonne where she met Pierre Curie, professor of the school of physics. They were married in 1895.

The Curies worked together investigating radioactivity.

In July 1898, they announced the discovery of a new chemical element, polonium, and at the end of the year they announced the discovery of another, radium.

The Curies were awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1903.

Marie received a second Nobel Prize, for chemistry, in 1911.

Their research was crucial in the development of X-rays in surgery.

During World War One, Curie helped to equip ambulances with X- ray equipment, which she herself drove to the front lines.

The Marie Curie Memorial Foundation – dedicated to alleviating suffering from cancer – was formed in 1948 and in 1952 it officially became a charity. Today it is known as Marie Curie Cancer Care

JOSEPH LISTER

BORN: April 5, 1827, in Essex, England.

DIED: February 10, 1912, Walmer, England

Joseph Lister was a surgeon who discovered the antiseptic method in which a germ-killing substance is applied to wounds during an operation.

This represented the beginning of modern surgery.

He successfully introduced carbolic acid to sterilize surgical instruments and to clean wounds while working at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary.

Lister’s other innovations were improved ligatures, which meant that they could be fully embedded in the wound without worry of infection.

He also introduced into Britain drainage tubes, which he used in an operation on Queen Victoria in his role as surgeon in ordinary to the monarch.

Lister served as president of the Royal Society (1895-1900) and the British Association for the Advancement of Science (1896), as well as being a founding member of the British Institute of Preventative Medicine, which now bears his name.

EDWARD JENNER

BORN: May 17, 1749, in Berkeley.

DIED: January 26, 1823, in Berkeley.

Edward Jenner was an English scientist famous for being the first doctor to introduce and study the cowpox disease as a vaccine for smallpox. In 1796, he carried out his now famous experiment on eight- year-old James Phipps.

Jenner inserted pus from a cowpox pustule and inserted it into an incision on the boy’s arm.

He was testing his theory that milkmaids who suffered the mild disease of cowpox never contracted smallpox – one of the greatest killers of the period, particularly among children.

Jenner proved that having been inoculated with cowpox Phipps was immune to smallpox.

He experimented on several other children, including his own 11- month-old son, and in 1798 the results were finally published and Jenner coined the word vaccine from the Latin “vacca” for cow.

Jenner became a member of the Medical and Chirurgical Society on its foundation in 1805 and subsequently presented to them a number of papers.

This is now the Royal Society of Medicine.

In 1980, the World Health Organization declared smallpox an eradicated disease – a lasting legacy of Jenner’s work.

LOUIS PASTEUR

BORN: December 27, 1822, Dole, France.

DIED: September 28, 1895, Paris, France.

The chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur is famous for his germ theory and for the development of vaccines.

His discovery that diseases are spread by microbes, which are living organisms that are invisible to the eye, saved countless lives.

He is popularly known for inventing a method to stop milk and wine from causing sickness – this process came to be called pasteurisation.

Pasteur’s various investigations convinced him of his germ theory of disease – that germs attack the body from outside.

Pasteur extended his theory to explain the causes of many diseases – including anthrax, cholera, TB and smallpox – and their prevention by vaccination.

He is best known for his work on the development of vaccines for rabies.

SIR ALEXANDER FLEMING

BORN: August 6, 1881, Lochfield, Scotland.

DIED: March 11, 1955, London, England.

Alexander Fleming’s bestknown achievement is the discovery of the antibiotic substance penicillin for which he shared the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine.

In 1928, while studying influenza, Fleming noticed mould had developed accidentally on a set of culture dishes used to grow the staphylococci germ.

The mould had created a bacteria-free circle around itself.

Fleming experimented further and named the active substance penicillin.

It was two other scientists, however, Australian Howard Florey and Ernst Chain, a refugee from Nazi Germany, who developed penicillin further so that it could be produced as a drug.

FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE

BORN: BORN: May 12, 1820, in Florence, Italy.

DIED: August 13, 1910, London, England.

Florence Nightingale was a pioneering nurse, writer and noted statistician.

She came to be known as The Lady with the Lamp during her time as a nurse in the Crimean War.

In 1855 Florence’s work led to the establishment of the Nightingale Fund for the training of nurses – founding the modern nursing profession.

After the Crimean War, Nightingale returned to England and in 1860 she established the Nightingale Training School for nurses at St Thomas’ Hospital in London.

Once the nurses were trained, they were sent to hospitals all over Britain.

Nightingale’s theories were hugely influential and her concerns for sanitation, military health and hospital planning established practices which are still in existence today.

ANEURIN BEVAN

BORN: BORN: August 3, 1897, in Tredegar, Wales.

DIED: July 6, 1960, Chesham, England.

Aneurin Bevan, usually known as Nye Bevan, was a Labour politician and a socialist.

He was a key figure on the left of the Labour party in the mid- 20th Century and was the Minister of Health responsible for the formation of the NHS in 1948. On July 5 of that year the Government took over responsibility for all medical services and there was free diagnosis and treatment for all.

In 1951, Bevan was moved to become Minister of Labour.

Shortly afterwards he resigned from the Government in protest at the introduction of prescription charges for dental care and spectacles.

ELIZABETH BLACKWELL

BORN: BORN: February 3, 1821, in Bristol, England.

DIED: May 31, 1910, in Hastings, England.

Elizabeth Blackwell was an abolitionist, women’s rights activist and the first female doctor in the United States.

She was the first woman to graduate from medical school and is a pioneer in educating women in medicine.

Determined to become a doctor, Blackwell, who emigrated to the USA with her family, had to save EUR3,000 in fees before she could enrol at a private school.

She graduated in 1849 at the top of her class with honours in every subject.

Just two years after her graduation, she established the New York Infirmary for Women and Children, which was staffed entirely by women, and became its director.

She gave academic respectability to preventative medicine by creating and undertaking a chair of hygiene post.

CHRISTIAAN NEETHLING BARNARD

BORN: BORN: November 8, 1922, in Beaufort West, South Africa.

DIED: September 2, 2001, in Paphos, Cyprus.

Barnard performed the first human heart transplant operation in 1967.

Previously unknown, he became an international superstar overnight.

He performed the first double-heart transplant in 1974 and was later also to be the first to perform a heterotopic heart transplant – an operation that he himself devised.

Barnard is also credited with developing a new design for artificial heart valves, doing heart transplants on animals and correcting blood supply to the fetus during pregnancy.

(c) 2008 Evening Chronicle – Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Provided by ProQuest Information and Learning. All rights Reserved.