July 14, 2011
Research Provides Insight Into New Drug Resistance In Hospital Microbes
Mass. Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School investigators share finding in July 2011 issue of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Hospitals struggle to prevent the infections that complicate treatment for cancer, joint replacement, heart surgery and other conditions. Hospital-acquired infections are often resistant to multiple antibiotics, leading to approximately 100,000 deaths and more than $30 billion in additional health care costs yearly. New drugs are being developed to combat these infections, but resistance invariably emerges to these last-line drugs.
In a two-week experiment, investigators were able recreate the development of resistance in the laboratory in a manner similar to that which occurred in the hospital. Using new genome sequencing technology, they resequenced the entire genome of the resistant enterococcus strain to identify all of the genetic changes. The researchers found changes in genes that they were also able to identify in hospital daptomycin resistant strains. Mutations in a gene encoding an enzyme called cardiolipin synthase were able by itself to confer daptomycin resistance to a laboratory strain of enterococcus.
"Knowing the changes that correspond with resistance not only tells us what happens in resistant strains, it tells us much about how exactly how the antibiotic works, providing new ideas for better treatment and next generation drugs," observed Dr. Michael S. Gilmore, a scientist at Harvard Medical School and the Mass. Eye and Ear, and the corresponding author.
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