New Reviews on Interphase, Prokaryotic Cells, and Anatomy & Physiology Published
The Bio Magazine EurekaMag.com publishes articles in all areas of biological science. The latest articles cover Interphase which is the phase of the cell cycle in which the cell conducts its regular cell functions including preparation for cell division, Prokaryotic Cells which do not have a membrane-bound nucleus and no chromosomal DNA, but their genetic information is stored in plasmids. The article on Anatomy and Physiology covers the structure and function of living organisms which includes the cells, tissues and membranes that make up these organisms and how these major systems function.
Mannheim, Germany (PRWEB) December 23, 2011
The Bio Magazine EurekaMag.com publishes articles in all areas of the natural sciences including biology, agriculture, horticulture, forestry, geography, environment and health. Drawing from this pool of scientific disciplines, it publishes articles, reviews and insights on biological topics including those which have recently attained attention. Most of these reviews are included in the Bio Sciences Keyword Category, the Bio Sciences Research Category and in the Bio Sciences Reviews Category of the online science magazine.
The EurekaMag.com review of Interphase covers the phase of the cell cycle in which the cell obtains nutrients, grows, reads its DNA, and conducts other “normal” cell functions thus spends the majority of its time. During the Interphase it prepares for cell division, it increases its size and makes a copy of its DNA. The review shows experimental results that the arrangement of the centromeric heterochromatin in interphase cells is specific for a given cell type. The characteristics described suggest that the interphase chromatin takes the form of coarse, dense strands which form a complex reticulum. A detailed examination of a large number of adult cell types revealed that this chromatin is actually present as a heterochromatic fibre in all interphase nuclei. In studies with onion (Allium cepa) and Aloe vera certain segments of the chromosomes maintained their telophase configuration throughout interphase to early prophase. Electron micrographs of Allium cepa interphase cells suggested that certain heterochromatic segments are associated with the nuclear membrane. This suggests that synapsis occurs before zygotene. Plant chromosomes are about ten times shorter at mitotic metaphase than in interphase, whereas vertebrate chromosomes in which G bands have been seen are only about 2.3 times shorter.
Eurekamag.com presents a review on Prokaryotic Cells which are cells that differ significantly from eukaryotic cells particularly due to their lack of a membrane-bound nucleus. Instead of having chromosomal DNA, their genetic information is in a circular loop called plasmid. Prokaryotic cells are very small, and feature three major shapes: rod shaped, spherical, and spiral. Instead of going through elaborate replication processes like eukaryotes, bacterial cells divide by binary fission. The EurekaMag.com review on Prokaryotic Cells shows that about 85% of the prokaryotic cells in the domain Bacteria are associated with the flagellates of the thin-walled anterior region and the thick wall of the posterior region of the hindgut. A great deal of attention is paid to fight infections by prokaryotic (bacterial) cells. Several peptides were investigated for their activity against prokaryotic cells, four tumour cell lines, human lung fibroblasts and human erythrocytes. Most of the peptides were highly active against both E coli and S aureus. The effects of several azole antifungals on ATP consumption by P-gp were assessed, and the Km values were congruent with the IC50s. It is present in all kinds of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
The EurekaMag.com review of Anatomy and Physiology covers the structure and function of organisms including the cells, tissues and membranes that make up these organisms and how their major systems function. More specifically, Anatomy and Physiology describes the basic organism functions and life process, name the major organism systems and relate their functions, and describe the anatomical locations, structures and physiological functions of the main components of each major system of such organisms. The review covers the anatomy and physiology of swamp saplings suggesting that aerial nodules possess unusual features associated with tolerance to swamp conditions. Further examinations were carried out to determine the cause for wilting, and how the anionic peroxidase functions in plant growth and development. Shoots from young peroxidase overproducing plants were grafted onto wild-type tobacco root stock to determine if the roots could absorb and transmit sufficient water to maintain leaf turgidity. These grafted plants never wilted when grown in the greenhouse though shoot peroxidase activity remained ten-fold greater than in control plants, thus indicating that wilting is a consequence of peroxidase expression in the roots. No significant difference in IAA levels was observed; however, root elongation in plants overexpressing peroxidase was insensitive to exogenous IAA It can be concluded that the overexpression of the tobacco anionic peroxidase in transformed plants results in diminished root mass from fewer root branches, which contributes to the wilting phenomenon seen in these plants. Swamp conditions impose stress signals that are expressed in developmental aberrations. Submerged tissues exhibit oxidative stress, with elevated concentrations of reactive oxygen species associated with a change in antioxidant enzyme activity. These changes affect the anatomy and physiology of the plants and their survival.
The Science Magazine EurekaMag.com was launched in November 1998 as the online version of the French science magazine “Eurêka – Le magazine des sciences” published since 1995. During the past decade, it has emerged as a comprehensive aggregator of information on biology, on the applied life sciences agriculture, horticulture and forestry, on the earth sciences, on the environmental sciences, and on the health sciences.
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