February 14, 2012
The Physics And Chemistry Of Champagne Bubbles
The innermost secrets of champagne bubbles are about to be unveiled in the Springer journal EPJ ST. This fascinating work is the brainchild of GÃ©rard Liger-Belair, a scientist tackling champagne bubbles from both a physics and a chemistry perspective. Based at the University of Reims, in the heart of the region that gave champagne its name, the author is appropriately affiliated with the 'effervescence team of the molecular and atmospheric spectrometry group' and the 'oenology and applied chemistry' laboratory.
To understand what appears to be a harmless phenomenon such as the fizz in champagne, the author studied the role of the carbon dioxide (CO2) throughout its journey from the bottle to the glass. Precisely, Liger-Belair focused on the second fermentation stage, resulting in the CO2 dissolution into the wine — aided by the addition of yeast and sugar before sealing each champagne bottle — to the stage where the gas escapes through tiny bubbles popping on the surface of the wine in the glass.
Understanding the source of fizz provides clues on how to fine tune champagne production. For example, the bubble size can be reduced by a factor that can be calculated by taking into account fermentation sugar levels. However, the method remains fundamentally the same as the one developed by the 17th century Benedictine monk Dom Pierre PÃ©rignon.
Reference: Liger-Belair G.,The Physics behind the Fizz in Champagne and Sparkling Wines, European Physical Journal ST (EPJ ST) 201: 1, DOI 10.1140/epjst/e2012-01528-0
On the Net: