July 8, 2012
Yak Genome Sequenced
redOrbit Staff & Wire Reports - Your Universe Online
A study published online in Nature Genetics provides important insights into understanding mammal variance and adaptation at high altitude.
Researchers, led by Lanzhou University and joined by BGI Shenzhen, Institute of Kunming Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences as well as the other 12 institutes, have finished the genomic sequence and testing of a female domestic yak.
As a symbol of Tibet and of high altitude, the yak (Bos grunniens) is the most significant tamed species for Tibetans residing at high altitude in China's Qinghai Province. It provides meat and other basic resources, such as milk, transportation, dried dung for fuel, and hides for tented accommodation. Yaks have many anatomical and physical traits that enable them live at high altitude, including high metabolism, acute senses, impressive foraging ability, enlarged hearts and lungs, and a lack of blood vessel constriction in the lungs when faced with low oxygen conditions.
Researchers sequenced the genome of a female domestic yak using high-throughput sequencing technology. The genomic data yielded 2,657Mb draft yak genome assembly that had 65-fold coverage. They also conducted transcriptome sequencing on RNA samples derived from fresh heart, liver, brain, stomach, and lung tissues collected from the same yak. Based on the transcriptome data, researchers estimated that the yak genome contains 22,282 protein-coding genes and 2.2 million heterozygous SNPs.
In order to understand the evolutionary adaptation of yaks to high-altitude, the team conducted the comparative genomic analyses between yak and cows, a closely related animal that lives at much lower altitudes. Although the yak and cows were estimated to have diverged around 4.9 million years ago, many of the yak and cow genes have remained very similar, with the two animals sharing 45 percent protein identity and 99.5 percent protein similarity. However, they identified distinct gene expansions related to sensory perception and energy metabolism-related in yak.
In addition, researchers also found an enrichment of protein domains related to the extracellular environment and hypoxic stress. Especially, they found the orthologous genes in yaks related to hypoxia and nutrition metabolism had undergone positively selected and rapid evolution. For example, they found three genes that may play important roles in regulating body's response to hypoxia, or oxygen deprivation, at high-altitudes, and five genes that were related with the optimization of the energy from the poor foods in the extreme plateau.
Researchers referred that the study on high-altitude adaptation may help to improve current understanding, treatment, and prevention of altitude sickness and other hypoxia-related diseases in humans. Moreover, the yak genome provided a valuable resource for accelerating the genetic improvement of milk and meat production of this important animal.