June 4, 2013
Detecting Disease Using Smartphone Accessory
The Optical Society
New plug-in optical sensor could be used for in-the-field diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma, a cancer linked to AIDS
Unlike other methods that use smartphones for diagnostic testing, this new system is chemically based and does not use the phone's built-in camera. Instead, gold nanoparticles are combined (or "conjugated") with short DNA snippets that bind to Kaposi's DNA sequences, and a solution with the combined particles is added to a microfluidic chip. In the presence of viral DNA, the particles clump together, which affects the transmission of light through the solution. This causes a color change that can be measured with an optical sensor connected to a smartphone via a micro-USB port. When little or no Kaposi's virus DNA is present, the nanoparticle solution is a bright red; at higher concentrations, the solution turns a duller purple, providing a quick method to quantify the amount of Kaposi's DNA.
The main advantage of the system compared to previous Kaposi's detection methods is that users can diagnose the condition with little training. "Expert knowledge is required for almost every other means of detecting Kaposi's sarcoma," Mancuso says. "This system doesn't require that level of expertise."
Erickson and Mancuso are now collaborating with experts on Kaposi's at New York City's Weill Cornell Medical College to create a portable system for collecting, testing, and diagnosing samples that could be available for use in the developing world by next year. The team's start-up company, vitaMe Technologies, is commercializing similar smartphone diagnostic technologies for domestic use.
Detecting Kaposi's sarcoma is not the only goal, Mancuso says. "Nanoparticle assays similar to the one used in our work can target DNA from many different diseases," such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a bacterium responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans, and syphilis. The smartphone reader could also work with other color-changing reactions, such as the popular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), a common tool in medicine to test for HIV, hepatitis, food allergens, and E. coli. The lab also has created smartphone accessories for use with the color-changing strips in pH and urine assays. "These accessories could form the basis of a simple, at-home, personal biofluid health monitor," Mancuso says.
CLEO: 2013 presentation AM3M.2. "Smartphone Based Optical Detection of Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus DNA" by David Erickson is at 2 p.m. on Monday, June 10 at the Marriott San Jose.
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