August 7, 2013
Family Matters: Evolutionary Relationships Among Species Of “Magic” Mushrooms Shed New Light On Fungi
âMagicâ mushrooms are well known for their hallucinogenic properties. Until now, less has been known about their evolutionary development and how they should be classified in the fungal Tree of Life. New research helps uncover the evolutionary past of a fascinating fungi that has wide recreational use and is currently under investigation for a variety of medicinal applications.
In the 19th century, the discovery of hallucinogenic mushrooms prompted research into the mushroomsâ taxonomy, biochemistry, and historical usage. GastÃ³n GuzmÃ¡n, a world authority on the genus Psilocybe, began studying its taxonomy in the 1950s. In 1983, these studies culminated in a monograph, which is currently being updated as a team of researchers from the University of Guadalajara and the University of Tennessee collaborate with GuzmÃ¡n to produce a hypothesis on how these mushrooms evolved. Some of their latest research is now published in the journal Botany.
According to the authors, their analysis of various morphological traits of the mushrooms suggests that these typically werenât acquired through a most recent common ancestor and must have evolved independently or undergone several evolutionary losses, probably for ecological reasons. Nevertheless, species of Psilocybe are united to some degree because they have the psychedelic compound psilocybin and other secondary metabolites, or products of metabolism. The authors say that former Psilocybe species that lack these secondary metabolites could also be found in Deconica.
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