August 28, 2013
Scientists at Genome Institute of Singapore Discover Gene that Controls the Birth of Neurons
Discovery of long non-coding RNA's role in neurogenesis may lead to cures for diseases such as Alzheimer's disease
Singapore, Aug 28, 2013 - (ACN Newswire) - Scientists at A*STAR's Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS) have discovered an unusual gene that controls the generation of neurons. This important finding, which is crucial in understanding serious diseases of the brain such as Alzheimer's disease, was reported in the 8th August 2013 issue of the prestigious scientific journal, Molecular Cell.
The central nervous system is composed of numerous cell types that develop into a complex, higher-ordered structure. The birth of neurons (known as neurogenesis) is a process that requires exquisite temporal and spatial control of hundreds of genes. The expression of these genes is controlled by regulatory networks, usually involving proteins, which play critical roles in establishing and maintaining the nervous system. Problems with neurogenesis are the basis of many neurological disorders, and the understanding of the molecular details of neurogenesis is therefore crucial for developing treatments of serious diseases.
Researchers at the GIS, led by Principal Investigator Prof Lawrence Stanton, discovered a key component within a gene regulatory network which controls the birth of new neurons, called RMST. Surprisingly, this new discovery is not a protein. Rather, RMST is an atypical, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA for short; pronounced as "link RNA"). The new findings demonstrate that the RNA does not produce a protein to handle the regulatory process. Instead, it acts directly as a regulatory mechanism. LncRNAs are a newly discovered class of RNA whose functions remain mostly unknown.
The new discovery of how RMST works within a gene regulatory network not only sheds light on the process of neurogenesis, but also generates new insight into how lncRNA works together with protein components to regulate the important biological processes of gene expression.
Prof Lawrence Stanton said, "There is now great excitement about the revelation that RNA is more than just a messenger carrying genetic information that encodes for proteins. New classes of RNA, called long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA), have been discovered, which are capable of unanticipated functional diversity. However, systematic functional investigations of exactly what, and how, lncRNAs do in our cells remain scant. Our study paves the way for understanding a crucial role played by a lncRNA in human neurons."
Associate Prof Leonard Lipovich, from the Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics at the Wayne State University and a member of GENCODE, said, "In their paper in Molecular Cell, Stanton and colleagues show how RMST, a human lncRNA, directly regulates SOX2, a key transcription factor protein that is instrumental for directing the birth of new neurons. Even more intriguingly, they highlight that RMST controls SOX2 by directly interacting with the protein. The paper is therefore an important advance in the still nascent and controversial field of riboregulators, or RNAs that regulate proteins in our cells. DNA-binding proteins that turn genes on and off were traditionally thought to be distinct from RNA-binding proteins. Stanton et al, however, illuminate the cryptic, yet crucial, RNA-binding roles for DNA-binding transcription factors: lncRNAs just might be the definitive regulatory switch that controls these factors' activity."
GIS Executive Director Prof Huck Hui Ng added, "One cannot overemphasize the importance of neurogenesis, which is responsible for the normal functioning of one of the most important biological systems in the body. Larry Stanton and his team have made an exciting finding, one that could lead to new approaches in the treatment of neural diseases. This latest work has built upon their unique, interdisciplinary expertise, developed over the past 10 years at the GIS, in applying cutting-edge genomics technologies to the study of the human body."
 A neuron or nerve cell is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. Neurons connect to each other to form neural networks. Neurons are the core components of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuron)
 Rhabdomyosarcoma 2 associated transcript
 Ribonucleic acid
 GENCODE is a sub-project of the Encyclopaedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) public research consortium launched by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) in 2003. GENCODE aims to annotate all evidence-based gene features in the entire human genome at high accuracy and is funded through an NHGRI ENCODE grant and additional funding from the Wellcome Trust.
Notes to the Editor:
Research publication -
The research findings described in the press release was published in the 8th August 2013 issue of Molecular Cell under the title "The Long Noncoding RNA RMST Interacts with SOX2 to Regulate Neurogenesis".
Shi-Yan Ng,1,2; Gireesh K. Bogu,1,5; Boon Seng Soh,2; Lawrence W. Stanton,1,3,4,*
1. Stem Cell and Developmental Biology Group, Genome Institute of Singapore, 60 Biopolis Street, Singapore 138672, Singapore
2. Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
3. Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore
4. School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637551, Singapore
5. Present address: Centre for Genomic Regulation, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
* Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel. +65-6808-8006
About the Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS)
The Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS) is an institute of the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR). It has a global vision that seeks to use genomic sciences to improve public health and public prosperity. Established in 2001 as a centre for genomic discovery, the GIS will pursue the integration of technology, genetics and biology towards the goal of individualized medicine.
The key research areas at the GIS include Stem Cell & Developmental Biology, Cancer Stem Cell Biology, Infectious Diseases, Human Genetics, Cancer Therapeutics & Stratified Oncology, Genomic Technologies, Computational & Systems Biology, and Translational Technologies. The genomics infrastructure at the GIS is utilized to train new scientific talent, to function as a bridge for academic and industrial research, and to explore scientific questions of high impact. Please visit www.gis.a-star.edu.sg.
The Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) is the lead agency for fostering world-class scientific research and talent for a vibrant knowledge-based and innovation-driven Singapore. A*STAR oversees 14 biomedical sciences and physical sciences and engineering research institutes, and six consortia & centres, located in Biopolis and Fusionopolis as well as their immediate vicinity. A*STAR supports Singapore's key economic clusters by providing intellectual, human and industrial capital to its partners in industry. It also supports extramural research in the universities, and with other local and international partners. For more information about A*STAR, please visit www.a-star.edu.sg .
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