Quantcast

Orchids of Atlantic Coast Barrier Islands From North Carolina to New York

February 20, 2008

By Lamont, Eric E Stalter, Richard

LAMONT, E. E. (Honorary Research Associate, Institute of Systematic Botany, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. NY 10458) AND R. STALTER (Department of Biological Sciences, St. John’s University, Jamaica, NY 11439). Orchids of Atlantic coast barrier islands from North Carolina to New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 134: 540-551. 2007.-During the past 25 years, we have documented the occurrence of 17 orchid species from Atlantic coast barrier islands from North Carolina to New York, including Calopogon tuberosus, Corallorhiza wisteriana, Cypripedium acaule, Epipactis helleborine, Goodyera pubescens, Habenaria repens, Listera australis, Malaxis spicata, Platanthera cristata, Pogonia ophioglossoides, Spiranthes cernua, S. lacera var. gracilis, S. laciniata, S. odorata, S. praecox, S. vernalis, and Tipularia discolor. For each species, we present data on localities of extant orchid populations, fluctuations in population size, flowering dates, habitat preferences, threats to some populations, results of herbarium and literature searches, and our opinion on the status of orchid species reported by others but not observed by us in the field. Spiranthes vernalis is the most common orchid on mid-Atlantic coast barrier islands. Other species occurring in large (> 1000 individuals) populations include Platanthera cristata, Spiranthes cernua, S. praecox, and Tipularia discolor. Four orchid species occur in moderately large (50 to 100+ individuals) populations but have limited distributions, including Calopogon tuberosus, Cypripedium acaule, Epipactus helleborine, and Pogonia ophioglossoides. When analyzed by locality, several regions of high orchid diversity can be identified, including False Cape, Virginia, and the region between and including Nags Head Woods and Kitty Hawk Woods on Bodie Island, North Carolina. These orchid “hot spots” occur in regions that provide a high diversity of habitats. Key words: barrier islands, diversity, floristics, orchids, Orchidaceae.

Orchid populations of the Middle Atlantic States are generally not noted as occurring on Atlantic coast barrier islands. Of the 51 orchid species of the Middle Atlantic States discussed by Gupton and Swope (1986) only one, Spiranthes vernalis, is reported as occurring on “sandy beaches”. Correli (1950) noted that barrier islands provide suitable habitat for several species of Spiranthes, including S. cernua on “beach sand dunes”, S. gracilis on “beaches along the coast”, S. praecox on the upper edges of “coastal salt marshes”, and S. vernalis on “sandy beaches and dune areas” and “coastal salt marshes”; however, Correli (1950) reported no other orchid species from barrier island habitats. Luer (1975), Petrie (1981), Keenan (1998), Brown (2004), and Fowler (2005) included no specific reference to barrier island habitats when discussing habitat preferences of orchid species of the Middle Atlantic States. Duncan and Duncan (1987) included Corallorhiza wisteriana, Cypripedium acaule, and Epidendrum conopseum in their discussion of “Seaside Plants of the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts” but did not specifically mention barrier islands. Flora of North America (FNA 2002) also made no specific reference to orchid occurrences on Atlantic coast barrier islands but did note that Spiranthes cernua, S. lacera var. gracilis, and S. vernalis occurred on “dunes” and in “dune hollows”. Radford et al. (1968) and Gleason and Cronquist (1991) made no reference to barrier island habitats when discussing orchid species within their respective manuals.

During the past 25 years we have been conducting floristic inventories of Atlantic coast barrier islands from North Carolina to New York, and during the course of these studies we have observed and documented the occurrence of 17 orchid species. We have accumulated extensive data on specific localities of extant orchid populations, fluctuations in population size from year to year, flowering dates, and habitat preferences. Although not the focus of this paper, we also have noted potential negative impacts on some populations. In addition to our field studies, we have conducted literature and herbarium searches of historical orchid populations and we have compiled data on orchid populations recently reported by other field botanists but not observed by us.

This paper presents the results of our 25 year study of the orchid flora of Atlantic coast barrier islands from North Carolina to New York. No previous publication has presented a comprehensive study of the current status of orchids occurring on these barrier islands.

Materials and Methods. Floristic inventories of Atlantic coast barrier islands from North Carolina to New York were conducted from 1982 to present. Initially, the purpose of these inventories was to document with voucher collections all vascular plant species on major barrier islands and publish the results in botanical journals. To date, six studies have been published, one is in preparation for publication, and another is in plant collection and identification stages.

We initiated our field work in 1982 with a study of the vascular flora of Fire Island, New York (Stalter et al. 1986). In 1985, we extended our survey of New York barrier islands by trying to relocate historical orchid populations on Coney Island, Jones Island, Long Beach Island, Rockaway Beach, and Tiana Beach (Lamont et al. 1988, Lamont 1996, 2000). In 1986, we began field studies of selected barrier islands along the Virginia coast, including Assateague Island (Stalter and Lamont 1990), Fisherman Island (Stalter and Lamont 2000a), and False Cape (Stalter et al. 1990, Lamont and Stalter in prep.). Floristic studies of 19 other Virginia barrier and marsh islands (McCaffrey and Dueser 1990, Klotz 1986, Clovis 1968, and Harvill 1965) were consulted and reports of orchid populations have been included in Appendix 1. In 1989, we initiated a 10 year floristic study of the Outer Banks of North Carolina, including Bodie Island, Bogue Banks, Core Banks, Hatteras Island, Ocracoke Island, Pea Island, Portsmouth Island, and Shackleford Banks (Stalter and Lamont 1997, 1999). Our field studies of New Jersey barrier islands have been restricted to Little Beach Island (Stalter 1994) and Sandy Hook (Stalter and Lamont 2000b); however, historical reports of orchid populations in the published literature (Stone 1910, Small and Martin 1958, Martin 1959) and recent reports from New Jersey field botanists have been included in Appendix 1. In 2006, we initiated floristic studies of Delaware barrier islands, including Fenwick Island and the islands comprising Delaware Seashore State Park. We have not conducted any field studies of Maryland’s barrier islands because they have been extensively investigated by Hill (1986), Higgins et al. (1971), Reed (1964), Tatnall (1946), and current local and state botanists; however, reports of orchid populations from these sources have been incorporated into Appendix 1.

Because most orchid species are rare to uncommon on Atlantic coast barrier islands, we collected voucher specimens only from large populations usually consisting of 100 or more individuals, although sometimes we collected vouchers from populations of approximately 25 individuals. From smaller populations we either collected one or two individual flowers from an inflorescence or documented the occurrence with photographs. Voucher specimens have been deposited at National Park Service herbaria at each study site, with some duplicates of Spiranthes deposited at the New York State Museum (NYS) in Albany.

During the course of our barrier island studies, we have been informed of additional orchid populations observed and reported by other botanists, but not verified by us. Some of these reports were based upon recent observations and collections by local and/or state field botanists; other reports were historical, based upon publications and collections from the late 1800s to 1980. We have attempted to verify all vouchered reports by examining the original collections and we have cautiously accepted some of the unvouchered reports. In both cases, we have clearly distinguished in Appendix 1 our own personal observations and collections from those of others. Some reports of barrier island orchids published by others have been based upon misidentifications and other published reports are in our opinion questionable; we have included and briefly discussed these incorrect and questionable published reports in Appendix 2.

Appendix 1 presents a summary of the orchid species observed by us on mid-Atlantic coast barrier islands. Species have been arranged alphabetically by genus, followed by common name(s). Location data are presented alphabetically by state, county, name of barrier island, and owner/manager of each site. Habitat data, population size, and blooming period are based upon our own personal observations. Each species entry concludes with miscellaneous comments including but not limited to reports of orchid populations from barrier islands not surveyed by us, pertinent voucher collections examined by us, extirpated populations, and threats to specific populations.

Appendix 2 presents a summary of the orchid species not observed by us but reported by others from mid-Atlantic coast barrier islands. Species have been arranged alphabetically by genus followed by common name. Location data follows the same sequence as in Appendix 1. The source of each report is given followed by our comments on the status of the species at the reported locality. Atlantic coast barrier islands change continuously in shape and location, a feature that serves to distinguish these landforms from most others (Ehrenfeld 1990). The majority of study sites included in our survey are currently “island” landforms, but they may have been connected to a mainland in the past; conversely, other study sites are currently contiguous with a mainland, but may have been islands in the past.

Throughout this paper, nomenclature follows the Orchidaceae treatment in Flora of North America (FNA 2002), herbarium abbreviations follow Holmgren et al. (1990), and rarity status of species follows Weakley (2007) and Young (2007). For a detailed description of each study site, see the original sources cited above in the Methods section.

Results and Discussion. Seventeen orchid species have been documented by us from Atlantic coast barrier islands from North Carolina to New York (Appendix 1). Spiranthes vernalis is the most common species, found at seven localities; Spiranthes cernua was found at five localities; Cypripedium acaule and Listera australis at four; Platanthera cristata, Pogonia ophioglossoides, and Spiranthes odorata at three; Malaxis spicata, Spiranthes praecox, and Tipularia discolor at two; and Calopogon tuberosus, Corallorhiza wisteriana, Epipactis helleborine, Goodyera pubescens, Habenaria repens, Spiranthes lacera var. gracilis, and S. laciniata were each at one locality.

In addition to our own personal observations, Spiranthes vernalis has been reported from 13 other barrier island localities not verified by us; Spiranthes cernua from eight other localities; Calopogon tuberosus and Pogonia ophioglossoides from five other localities; Cypripedium acaule, Platanthera cristata, and Spiranthes lacera var. gracilis from two other localities; and Corallorhiza wisteriana, Goodyera pubescens, Listera australis, and Spiranthes praecox from one other locality (Appendix 1). We have not encountered any additional reports of Epipactis helleborine, Habenaria repens, Malaxis spicata, Spiranthes laciniata, S. odorata, and Tipularia discolor from mid-Atlantic coast barrier islands.

Orchid species occurring as large populations include Platanthera cristata, Spiranthes cernua, S. praecox, S. vernalis, and Tipularia discolor. One population of Platanthera cristata occurring in a moist maritime woodland dominated by Pinus taeda on Assateague Island, Virginia, consists of thousands of individuals; this population is dominated by individuals with pale yellow flowers and may represent forma straminea (Brown et al. 1995). Spiranthes cernua, S. praecox, and S. vernalis are each represented by thousands of widely scattered colonies and individuals in moist to wet sandy soils along roadsides and adjacent swales especially on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Spiranthes praecox becomes rare on barrier islands north of Chesapeake Bay, whereas 5. cernua and S. vernalis remain relatively common. More than a thousand individuals of Tipularia discolor occur in a mature, maritime deciduous forest dominated by Fagus grandifolia and Quer cus spp. at Kitty Hawk Woods on Bodie Island, North Carolina; in a small study plot of approximately 0.5 ha., we counted 434 individual plants in March 2000.

Four orchid species occur in moderately large populations but have limited distributions. Fifty to more than 100 individuals of Calopogon tuberosus, Cypripedium acaule, and Pogonia ophioglossoides consistently flower at a few barrier island localities in North Carolina and Virginia. Although Epipactus helleborine is a relatively recent introduction to barrier and coastal islands in and near New York Harbor, more than 100 individuals were counted at Sandy Hook, New Jersey.

Orchid species that are rare on mid-Atlantic coast barrier islands include Corallorhiza wisteriana, Goodyera pubescens, Habenaria repens, Listera australis, Malaxis spicata, Spiranthes lacera var. gracilis, S. laciniata, and S. odorata. Each of these species is represented by only a few populations and/or a few individuals.

Several regions of high orchid diversity can be identified on barrier islands from North Carolina to New York. The region between and including Nags Head Woods and Kitty Hawk Woods on Bodie Island, North Carolina, provides suitable habitat for a relatively large number of orchid species, including Cypripedium acaule, Goodyera pubescens, Habenaria repens, Listera australis, Platanthera cristata, Pogonia ophioglossoides, Spiranthes odorata, S. praecox, and Tipularia discolor. False Cape, Virginia, is another orchid “hot spot”, providing suitable habitat for Calopogon tuberosus, Cypripedium acaule, Goodyera pubescens, Listera australis, Platanthera cristata, Pogonia ophioglossoides, Spiranthes odorata, S. praecox, and S. vernalis. Assateague Island, Virginia, supports populations of Cypripedium acaule, Listera australis, Platanthera cristata, Spiranthes cernua, and S. vernalis. These orchid hot spots exist because of the high diversity of habitats present at these localities. Few barrier islands north of Assateague Island provide the diversity of habitats required to support large numbers of orchid species.

The most abundant habitat available to orchid species on mid- Atlantic coast barrier islands includes open uplands and wetlands with sandy soils dominated by grasses, sedges, rushes, and forbs. Dry maritime dunes, freshwater interdunal swales, shallow freshwater marshes, and roadsides provide suitable habitat for populations of Calopogon tuberosus, Cypripedium acaule, Habenaria repens, Pogonia ophioglossoides, Spiranthes cernua, S. iacera var. gracilis, S. laciniata, S. praecox, and 5. vernalis. Several related yet distinguishable maritime forests cover the more stable portions of barrier islands (BeIUs 1995) and provide habitat for populations of Corallorhiza wisteriana, Cypripedium acaule, Goodyera pubescens, Listera australis, Malaxis spicata, Platanthera cristata, and Tipularia discolor.

Three orchid species have been reliably reported by others from mid-Atlantic coast barrier islands, but have not been observed by us in the field (Appendix 2). In 1976, Malaxis unifolia was collected from Nags Head Woods on Bodie Island, North Carolina. We examined the herbarium collection and searched Nags Head Woods in vain for this diminutive orchid (Stalter and Lamont 1997); in our opinion, it is probable that M. unifolia still persists at this locality because suitable habitat is abundant. Stone (1910) reported Liparis loeselii and Platanthera lacera from Long Beach Island, New Jersey. We do not question the validity of these reports, although we have not seen any voucher specimens. In our opinion, it is likely that these populations have been extirpated due to habitat destruction.

Four orchid species have been reported by others from mid- Atlantic coast barrier islands, based upon misidentifications and misinterpretation of primary sources (Appendix 2). Calopogon pallidus has been reported from False Cape, Virginia, by Knepper et al. (1991), Wright (1991), and Virginia Natural Heritage Program (fide Loomis, pers. comm.), based upon the misidentification of a herbarium collection of Calopogon tuberosus. Krings (2002) reported Platanthera ciliaris as a “new addition to the Outer Banks flora”, based upon the misidentification of a herbarium collection of Platanthera cristata. Wright (1991) reported Liparis liliifolia from False Cape, Virginia, but in our opinion this unvouchered report is based upon a misinterpretation of a primary source. Lewis (1917) reported Spiranthes ovalis from Shackleford Banks, North CaroUna, but in our opinion this unvouchered report is unlikely and is probably based upon a misidentification of another species of Spiranthes.

In conclusion, during the course of our investigations we have observed an overall decline in the number of orchid populations on barrier islands of the Middle Atlantic States. This decline is largely the result of habitat destruction by humans for development projects. The barrier islands of New Jersey have been most severely impacted resulting in the extirpation of many orchid populations, whereas the barrier islands of Virginia and North Carolina have been less disturbed by human activities and in some regions they remain relatively pristine (e.g., False Cape, Virginia). The federal government’s management of “national seashores” has been the single most significant factor in preserving the ecological integrity of barrier islands of the Middle Atlantic States, and these protected regions often function as refugia for many orchid species.

Literature Cited

Au, S. 1974. Vegetation and ecological processes on Shackleford Banks, NC. National Park Service Monograph Series #6. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

BELLIS, V. J. 1995. Ecology of maritime forests of the southern Atlantic coast: A community profile. Biological Report No. 30, U.S. Dept. Interior, National Biological Service, Washington, DC.

BRACKLEY, F. E. 1985. The orchids of New Hampshire. Rhodora 87: 1- 117.

BROWN, C. A. 1957. Botanical reconnaissance of the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Technical Report No. 8, Part C, Coastal Studies Institute Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA.

BROWN, P. M. 2003. The wild orchids of North America, north of Mexico. Univ. Press Florida, Gainesville, FL.

BROWN, P. M. 2004. Wild orchids of the southeastern United States, north of peninsular Florida. Univ. Press Florida, Gainesville, FL.

BROWN, P. M., R. A. COLEMAN, AND C. L. MCCARTNEY, JR. 1995. New taxa and combinations. N. Amer. Native Orchid J. 1: 7-18.

CHAPMAN, W. K. 1997. Orchids of the Northeast: a field guide. Syracuse Univ. Press, Syracuse, NY.

CLOVIS, J. F. 1968. The vegetation of Smith Island, Virginia. Castanea 33: 115-121. CORRELL, D. S. 1937. The orchids of North Carolina. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 53: 139-172.

CORRELL, D. S. 1950. Native orchids of North America north of Mexico. Chronica Botanica Co., Waltham, MA.

DUNCAN, W. H. AND M. B. DUNCAN. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

EDINGER, G. J., D. J. EVANS, S. GEBAUER, T. G. HOWARD, D. M. HUNT, AND A. M. OLIVERO [eds.]. 2002. Ecological communities of New York State. 2nd ed. (Draft for review). New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Dept. Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

EHRENFELD, J. G. 1990. Dynamics and processes of barrier island vegetation. Rev. Aquatic Sci. 2: 437-480.

FERNALD, M. L. 1935. Midsummer vascular plants of southeastern Virginia. Rhodora 37: 378-413, 423-454.

FERNALD, M. L. 1936. Plants from the outer coastal plain of Virginia. Rhodora 38: 376-404, 414-452.

[FNA] FLORA OF NORTH AMERICA EDITORIAL COMMITTEE [eds.]. 2002. Flora of North America, North of Mexico. Vol. 26, Orchidaceae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, NY.

FOWLER, J. A. 2005. Wild orchids of South Carolina, a popular natural history. Univ. South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC.

GLEASON, H. A. AND A. CRONQUIST. 1991. Manual of the vascular plants of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY.

GUPTON, O. W. AND F. C. SWOPE. 1986. Wild orchids of the middle Atlantic states. Univ. Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.

HARVILL, A. M., JR. 1965. The vegetation of Parramore Island, Virginia. Castanea 30: 226-228.

HIGGINS, E. A. T., R. D. RAPPLEYE, AND R. G. BROWN. 1971. The flora and ecology of Assateague Island. Univ. Maryland Agrie. Expt. Sta. Bull. A-172.

HILL, S. R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea 51: 265-305.

HOLMGREN, P. K., N. H. HOLMGREN, AND L. C. BARNETT [eds.]. 1990. Index Herbariorum. Part I: The herbaria of the world, 8th ed. Regnum Vegetabile v. 120. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY.

HOMOYA, M. A. 1993. Orchids of Indiana. Indiana Acad. Sci. Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis, IN.

KEENAN, P. E. 1998. Wild orchids across North America. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

KLOTZ, L. H. 1986. The vascular flora of Wallops Island and Wallops mainland, Virginia. Castanea 51: 306-326.

KNEPPER, D. A., J. B. WRIGHT, AND L. J. MUSSELMAN. 1991. The phytogeographical significance of some rare plants at Back Bay, pp. 215-221, In Marshall, H. G. and M. D. Norman [eds.], Proc. Back Bay Ecol. Symposium. Virginia Beach, VA.

KRINGS, A. 2002. The Nags Head Woods collections of the National Park Service Cape Hattaras National Seashore Herbarium (CAHA). J. North Carolina Acad. Sci. 118: 145-155.

LAMONT, E. E. 1994. The weed orchid (Epipactis helleborine) on Long Island, New York. Long Island Bot. Soc. Newsl. 4: 12.

LAMONT, E. E. 1995. Fanny Mulford’s orchid collections from the late 1890′s. Long Island Bot. Soc. Newsl. 5: 7-9.

LAMONT, E. E. 1996. Atlas of the orchids of Long Island, New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123: 157-166.

LAMONT, E. E. 2000. Historical orchid collections from Brooklyn, New York. N. Amer. Native Orchid J. 6: 93-102.

LAMONT, E. E. 2007. One hundred fifty years of change in the orchid flora of Brooklyn and Queens, New York. Trans. Linn. Soc. New York 10: 123-132.

LAMONT, E. E., J. M. BEITEL, AND R. E. ZAREMBA. 1988. Current status of orchids on Long Island, New York. BuU. Torrey Bot. Club 115: 113-121.

LEWIS, I. F. 1917. The vegetation of Shackleford Bank. North Carolina Geological & Economic Survey, Economic Paper No. 46. Edwards & Broughton Printing Co., Raleigh, NC.

LUER, C. A. 1975. The native orchids of the United States and Canada excluding Florida. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY.

MCCAFFREY, C. A. and R. D. Dueser. 1990. Preliminary vascular flora for the Virginia barrier islands. Virginia J. Sci. 41: 259- 281.

MARTIN, W. E. 1959. The vegetation of Island Beach State Park, New Jersey. Ecol. Monogr. 29: 1-46.

PETRIE, W. 1981. Guide to the orchids of North America. Hancock House Publishers, Blaine, WA.

RADFORD, A. E., H. E. AHLES, AND C. R. BELL. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC.

REED, C. F. 1964. Orchidaceae of Maryland, Delaware and the District of Columbia. Castanea 29: 77-109.

SMALL, J. A. AND W. E. MARTIN. 1958. A partially annotated catalogue of vascular plants reported from Island Beach State Park, New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 85: 368-386.

SOPER, J. H. AND L. MURRAY. 1985. Helleborine-a 30-year update and analysis of its distribution in Ontario. Mich. Bot. 24: 83-96.

STALTER, R. 1994. The vegetation of Little Beach Island, New Jersey. Bartonia 58: 97-100.

STALTER, R. AND E. E. LAMONT. 1990. The vascular flora of Assateague Island, Virginia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 117:48-56.

STALTER, R. AND E. E. LAMONT. 1997. Flora of North Carolina’s Outer Banks, Ocracoke Island to Virginia. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 124: 71-88.

STALTER, R. AND E. E. LAMONT. 1999. Vascular flora of Cape Lookout National Seashore and Bogue Banks, North Carolina. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 115:213-235.

STALTER, R. AND E. E. LAMONT. 2000a. Vascular flora of Fisherman Island, Virginia. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 127: 324-332.

STALTER, R. AND E. E. LAMONT. 2000b. Vascular flora of Sandy Hook, New Jersey. Bartonia 60: 105-116.

STALTER, R., E. E. LAMONT, AND J. NORTHUP. 1986. Vegetation of Fire Island, New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 113:298-306.

STALTER, R., E. E. LAMONT, J. WRIGHT, P. JAUREQUI, A. SANTIAGO, AND T. WILLIAMS. 1990. Preliminary observations on the vegetation of False Cape State Park, Virginia. Bull. South Carolina Acad. Sci. 52: 93 [abstract].

STALTER, R. AND S. SCOTTO. 1999. The vascular flora of Ellis Island, New York City, New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126: 367-375.

STONE, W. 1910 [1912]. The plants of southern New Jersey with especial reference to the flora of the Pine Barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Ann. Rep. New Jersey State Mus. 1910 (pt. 2): 21-828.

SWINK, F. A. 1966. Orchids of the Indiana Dune region. Amer. Orchid Soc. Bull. 35: 706-710.

TATNALL, R. R. 1946. Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore, an annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of the peninsula of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. Soc. Nat. Hist, of Delaware, Wilmington, DE.

WEAKLEY, A. S. 2007. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, and surrounding areas. Working draft of 11 January 2007. Univ. North Carolina Herbarium, Chapel Hill. Retrieved 9 July 2007. < www>

WRIGHT, J. B. 1991. A catalog of the vascular flora of the Back Bay watershed, n 257-264. In Marshall, H. G. and M. D. Norman [eds.], Proc. Back Bay Ecol. Symposium. Virginia Beach, VA.

YOUNG, S. M. 2007. New York rare plant status lists. New York Natural Heritage Program, Albany, NY.

Eric E. Lamont1,2

Honorary Research Associate, Institute of Systematic Botany, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx,

NY 10458

Richard Stalter

Department of Biological Sciences, St. John’s University, Jamaica, NY 11439

1 We sincerely appreciate and express thanks to the many individuals acknowledged throughout this paper for assistance in the field, arranging for herbarium loans, checking herbarium label data, and sharing localities of orchid populations not observed by us in the field.

2 Author for correspondence: E-mail: elamont@ optonline.net

Received for publication August 29, 2007, and and in revised form October 1, 2007.

Appendix 1.

Annotated checklist of orchids observed by Lamont and Stalter on Atlantic coast barrier islands from North Carolina to New York

Calopogon tuberosus (L.) B.S.P.

Common Grass-pink

LOCATION: Virginia, City of Virginia Beach (formerly Princess Anne Co.), False Cape, Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge.

HABITAT: Wet, sandy, open depressions dominated by sedges, rushes, and forbs.

POPULATION SIZE: Approx. 50 to 60 flowering individuals.

BLOOMING PERIOD: May to June, sometimes later.

COMMENTS: Stone (1910) reported three populations of C. tuberosus from Long Beach Island, Ocean Co., NJ, in the vicinity of North Beach Haven, Spray Beach, and Surf City; we are unaware of any recent efforts to relocate these occurrences. Lamont (1996) cited an herbarium collection [3 Jul 1918, Taylor, BKL] of this species from Tiana Beach, Suffolk Co., NY; extensive attempts by Lamont et al. (1988) to relocate this population were unsuccessful. In 1934 and 1935, Fernald et al. collected C tuberosus from three sites just north of Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, VA: south of Rudee Inlet [Fernald & Long 3874, HUH], south of Dam Neck, [Fernald, Griscom & Long 4614, HUH], and in swales behind the dunes at Sandbridge [Fernald, Griscom & Long 4615, HUH]. Goldman (pers. comm.) recently collected C. tuberosus from “the False Cape/Back Bay area” (see additional discussion under C. pallidus in Appendix 2). Listed as rare (“Watch List”) in VA (Weakley 2007).

Corallorhiza wisteriana Conrad

Spring Coralroot, Wister’s Coralroot

LOCATION: North Carolina, Carteret Co., Shackleford Banks, Cape Lookout National Seashore.

HABITAT: Low, moist, shady, maritime woodland.

POPULATION SIZE: Few individuals; 11 flowering individuals observed in 1994, none in 1997.

BLOOMING PERIOD: April to May.

COMMENTS: Apparently, Corallorhiza wisteriana was first reported from Shackleford Banks by Shufun Au (Au 1974). Au also collected this species in 1968 from Harkers Island, Carteret Co., NC (voucher at DUKE) and J. H. Carter collected it in 1972 from Wrightsville Beach, New Hanover Co., NC (voucher at WNC). Luer (1975) considered C. wisteriana to be local and sporadic throughout its range, “being found abundantly one year and scarcely at all the next”. Listed as rare (“Watch List”) in NC (Weakley 2007). Cypripedium acaule Ait.

Pink Lady’s-slipper, Pink Moccasin-flower

LOCATIONS: New York, Suffolk Co., Fire Island, Fire Island National Seashore. North Carolina, Dare Co., Bodie Island, Nags Head Woods Ecological Preserve. Virginia, Accomack Co., Assateague Island, Assateague Island National Wildlife Refuge; City of Virginia Beach (formerly Princess Anne Co.), False Cape, False Cape State Park.

HABITAT: In NC and VA, in dry sands on old stable dunes in maritime forests dominated by Pinus taeda; rarely, as at False Cape State Park, in dry sands under Quercus virginiana. In NY, in dry sands of an open swale between the primary and secondary dunes.

POPULATION SIZE: Usually between 30 to 50 widely scattered individuals at Bodie Island and False Cape, approx. 10 individuals at Assateague Island, and 3 individuals at Fire Island.

BLOOMING PERIOD: Late April and May in NC & VA, May and June in NY.

COMMENTS: McAvoy (pers. comm.) reported C. acaule in 2000 from “sandy pine woods” on barrier islands in Sussex Co., DE. Small and Martin (1958) reported C. acaule from Island Beach State Park, Ocean Co., NJ, but Anderson and Kelly (pers. comm.) were unable to relocate this population in 1997. The population at Fire Island, NY, has not been observed since the early 1990s and is considered extirpated, probably the result of selective browsing by white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz

Broad-leaved Helleborine

LOCATION: New Jersey, Monmouth Co., Sandy Hook, Gateway National Recreation Area.

HABITAT: Along disturbed edges of sandy paths in successional woodlands dominated by Prunus serotina.

POPULATION SIZE: More than 100 individuals and spreading.

BLOOMING PERIOD: Late June to early August.

COMMENTS: Also occurs at nearby Ellis Island in New York Harbor (Stalter and Scotto 1999). Although several authors have described E. helleborine as an aggressive weed (Brackley 1985, Soper and Murray 1985, Lamont 1994, Chapman 1997, Brown 2003), it has yet to exhibit such aggressiveness on Atlantic coast barrier islands. Homoya (1993) reported E. helleborine from “sandy, acidic dune forests bordering Lake Michigan” (also see Swink 1966). Introduced from Eurasia (Luer 1975).

Goodyera pubescens (Wild.) R. Br.

Downy Rattlesnake-plantain, Rattlesnake Orchid

LOCATION: Virginia, City of Virginia Beach (formerly Princess Anne Co.), False Cape, False Cape State Park.

HABITAT: Dry sands on old stable dunes in maritime pine-oak forest.

POPULATION SIZE: 5 widely scattered individuals observed in 1990.

BLOOMING PERIOD: Early July to mid-August.

COMMENTS: Reported by Brown (1957) as “rare under beech trees in Nags Head Woods [Bodie Island, Dare Co., NC], identification based upon foliage only”, and later collected from the same locality by Gifford [6 Aug 1976, Gifford, CAHA 655]. Extensive attempts by Stalter and Lamont (1997) to relocate this population were unsuccessful.

Habenaria repens Nutt.

Water-spider Orchid, Floating Orchid

LOCATION: North Carolina, Dare Co., Bodie Island, south end of Jockey’s Ridge State Park.

HABITAT: Wet, sandy, open depression dominated by sedges, rushes, and forbes, including Pogonia ophioglossoides.

POPULATION SIZE: Varies from year to year, apparently in response to water level fluctuations; approx. 15 flowering individuals observed in the early to mid-1990s.

BLOOMING PERIOD: May to June, sometimes later.

COMMENTS: Near northern limit of its range in Dare Co., NC (FNA 2002). Listed as rare (“Watch List”) in NC (Weakley 2007).

Listera australis Lindi.

Southern Twayblade

LOCATIONS: North Carolina, Dare Co., Bodie Island, Kitty Hawk Woods and Nags Head Woods Ecological Preserve. Virginia, Accomack Co., Assateague Island, Assateague Island National Wildlife Refuge); City of Virginia Beach (formerly Princess Anne Co.), False Cape, False Cape State Park.

HABITAT: In dense shade and rich humus of low moist maritime forests. At the NC sites the maritime forest is dominated by deciduous species including Quercus spp., Cary a glabra and Liquidambar styraciflua; at the VA sites the maritime forest is dominated by Pinus taeda and Quercus spp.

POPULATION SIZE: All four populations are relatively small, ranging from 6 to approx. 24 individuals. Several scattered colonies occur within Nags Head Woods.

BLOOMING PERIOD: Late April to May.

COMMENTS: Gifford collected a voucher specimen [June 1976, Gifford, CAHA] of L. australis from Buxton Woods, Hatteras Island (Cape Hatteras National Seashore), Dare Co., NC; extensive attempts by Stalter and Lamont (1997) to relocate this population were unsuccessful. The small size and inconspicuous nature of this orchid makes it exceedingly difficult to find. Listed as rare (“Watch List”) in NC (Weakley 2007).

Malaxis spicata Swartz.

Florida Adder’s-mouth

LOCATIONS: North Carolina, Carteret Co., Bogue Banks, Theodore Roosevelt State Natural Area; Dare Co., Hatteras Island, Buxton Woods, Cape Hatteras National Seashore.

HABITAT: Low, moist (very wet some years) maritime swamp forest, with Acer rubrum, Quercus laurifolia, Pinus taeda, Saururus cernuus, Pilea fontana, and Boehmeria cylindrica.

POPULATION SIZE: Large population at Buxton Woods, some years approximately 100 individuals; usually less than 10 individuals at the Bogue Banks locality.

BLOOMING PERIOD: July to mid-August.

COMMENTS: Difficult to find due to the inconspicuous greenish brown flowers and apparent preference for inaccessible habitats. Listed as rare (“Active List”) in NC (Weakley 2007).

Platanthera cristata (Michx.) Lindi.

Crested Fringed Orchid, Orange-crested Orchid

LOCATIONS: North Carolina, Dare Co., Bodie Island, Nags Head Woods Ecological Preserve. Virginia, Accomack Co., Assateague Island, Assateague Island National Wildlife Refuge; City of Virginia Beach (formerly Princess Anne Co.), False Cape, False Cape State Park near the VA/NC border.

HABITAT: Open areas (50 to 70% canopy cover) of sandy, moist maritime woodlands dominated by Pinus taeda with scattered Liquidambar styraciflua and Quercus laurifolia, and Chasmanthium laxum as a dominant groundcover.

POPULATION SIZE: One population at Nags Head Woods consisting of approx. 20 to 50+ individuals; two populations at Assateague Island, the northern one consisting of 1000s of individuals, the southern usually with 50 to 100 individuals; one population at False Cape consisting of approx. 50 individuals.

BLOOMING PERIOD: July to August.

COMMENTS: Reported by Hill (1986) from Assateague Island, MD; Lea (pers. comm.) relocated this population in 1997 and reported approx. 30-40 plants, but in 2000 no plants appeared. In 1934, a voucher specimen of P. cristata was collected from Brier Island, Cape May Co., NJ (5 Aug 1934, Tullner, PH); we are unaware of any recent efforts to relocate this occurrence. The color of mature flowers is usually a deep orange (Luer 1975, FNA 2002), but the large population on Assateague Island, VA, is dominated by individuals with pale yellow flowers.

Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Ker Gawler

Rose Pogonia, Snake’s-mouth, Adder’s-mouth

LOCATIONS: North Carolina, Dare Co., Bodie Island, south end of Jockey’s Ridge State Park.

Virginia, City of Virginia Beach (formerly Princess Anne Co.), False Cape, False Cape State Park. New York, Suffolk Co., Fire Island, Smoky Hollow Bog at Fire Island Pines.

HABITAT: In NC and VA, occurring in wet, sandy, open depressions with Sphagnum spp., sedges, rushes, and forbes (including Habenaria repens at the NC site); in NY, occurring in a coastal plain poor fen (Edinger et al. 2002) with sedges, rushes, and forbs, bordered by a shrubland community dominated by Clethra alnifolia, Rhododendron viscosum, Vaccinium corymbosum, and Pinus rigida.

POPULATION SIZE: 100s of individuals at the NC site, approx. 30 to 50 individuals at the VA site, and approx. 12 individuals at the NY site.

BLOOMING PERIOD: May to June in NC and VA; June to early July in NY.

COMMENTS: In 1998, Lea (pers. comm.) reported a small population of P. ophioglossoides from Assateague Island, MD, not previously reported by Hill (1986). Stone (1910) and Small and Martin (1958) reported P. ophioglossoides from Island Beach State Park, Ocean Co., NJ, but Anderson and Kelly (pers. comm.) were unable to relocate this population in 1997. Stone (1910) also reported P. ophioglossoides from Long Beach Island, Ocean Co., NJ, in the vicinity of North Beach Haven and Spray Beach; we are unaware of any recent efforts to relocate these occurrences. Lamont (1996) cited an herbarium collection [13 Jul 1918, Taylor, BKL] of this species from Tiana Beach, Suffolk Co., NY; extensive attempts by Lamont et al. (1988) to relocate this population were unsuccessful. During the mid- 1990s, increased groundwater use by seasonal residents at Fire Island Pines, NY, contributed to a decrease in the local water table resulting in the succession of Smoky Hollow Bog into a shrubland community; in 2000, no P. ophioglossoides was found at the site. Listed as rare (“Watch List”) in VA (Weakley 2007).

Spiranthes cernua (L.) Rich.

Nodding Ladies’-tresses

LOCATIONS: Delaware, Sussex Co., Fenwick Island, Fenwick Island State Park. New York, Suffolk Co., Fire Island, Sailor’s Haven and Watch Hill/ Bayberry Dunes at Fire Island National Seashore. North Carolina, Dare Co., Hatteras Island, roadside near Buxton. Virginia, Accomack Co., Assateague Island, Assateague Island National Wildlife Refuge.

HABITAT: In DE, NC, and VA occurring along moist, sandy roadsides and adjacent swales in full sun; in NY occurring in moist, open, interdunal swales often with Vaccinium macrocarpon and in a freshwater marsh.

POPULATION SIZE: Usually 100s, some years 1000s, of widely scattered individuals at each location.

BLOOMING PERIOD: Late August to October, sometimes later in NC.

COMMENTS: Spiranthes cernua becomes more common on barrier islands north of Chesapeake Bay. McAvoy (pers. com.) reported it “on interdunal swales on barrier islands in Sussex Co., DE on Rehoboth and Indian River Bays.” Hill (1986) reported several occurrences on Assateague Island, Worcester Co., MD; Lea (pers. comm.) relocated these populations in 1999. Reed (1964) reported 5. cernua “on sand dunes” in the vicinity of Ocean City, Fenwick Island, Worcester Co., MD. Small and Martin (1958) reported S. cernua from Island Beach State Park, Ocean Co., NJ, but Anderson and Kelly (pers. comm.) were unable to relocate the population in 1997. Stone (1910) reported three populations of S. cernua from Long Beach Island, Ocean Co., NJ, in the vicinity of Harvey Cedars, Ship Bottom, and Spray Beach; we are unaware of any recent efforts to relocate these occurrences. Stone (1910) also reported 5. cernua from Sandy Hook, Monmouth Co., NJ, but Stalter and Lamont (2000b) were unable to relocate the population. Spiranthes lacera (Raf.) Raf. var. gracilis (Bigel.) Luer

Southern Slender Ladies’-tresses

LOCATION: New York, Suffolk Co., Fire Island, Fire Island National Seashore, east of Sailor’s Haven.

HABITAT: Dry sands in full sun, bayside of interdunal swale.

POPULATION SIZE: One population, approx. 20+ individuals.

BLOOMING PERIOD: August to September, sometimes later.

COMMENTS: Reed (1964) cited an herbarium collection [1 Sept 1932, Redmond, DOV] of 5. lacera var. gracilis from Fenwick Island, Worcester Co., MD; we are unaware of any recent efforts to relocate this occurrence. Lamont (1996) cited two herbarium collections [26 Aug 1915, Bicknell, NY; 27 Aug 1916, Pennell, NY] of this species from Long Beach, Nassau Co., NY; extensive attempts by Lamont et al. (1988) to relocate this population were unsuccessful. Correll (1950) reported, “this species is found in . . . beaches along the coast . . . near sea level along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts”; however, we have found this species to be very rare on Atlantic coast barrier islands from NC to NY.

Spiranthes laciniata (Small) Ames

Lace-lipped Ladies’-tresses

LOCATION: North Carolina, Carteret Co., Cape Lookout National Seashore.

HABITAT: Shallow freshwater marsh (in standing water at least part of the year) occurring with graminoids and forbs, including a large population of Sagittaria lanci/olia var. media (= S. falcata).

POPULATION SIZE: One small population, less than 10 flowering individuals.

BLOOMING PERIOD: July (we have seen reports of this species also flowering in NC during June and early Aug, but from 1994 to 1997 we observed the population at Cape Lookout National Seashore consistently flowering during July).

COMMENTS: The voucher specimen of 5. laciniata collected by us (consisting of a few flowers and a leaf) from Cape Lookout National Seashore was determined by Charles Sheviak (NYS). Spiranthes laciniata can be distinguished from S. vernalis, which it superficially resembles, by its capitate trichomes; it typically flowers later than S. vernalis where the two are sympatric (FNA 2002). Listed as rare (“Active List”) in NC (Weakley 2007).

Spiranthes odorata (Nutt.) Lindi.

Fragrant Ladies’-tresses

LOCATIONS: North Carolina, Dare Co., Bodie Island, vicinity of Kitty Hawk. Virginia, City of Virginia Beach (formerly Princess Anne Co.), False Cape, Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge and False Cape State Park.

HABITAT: In NC occurring in swampy areas often dominated by Quercus laurifolia and Morella [Myrica] cerifera; in VA along the edges of Back Bay tidal creeks and channels and in tidal marshes.

POPULATION SIZE: In NC, scattered colonies each with usually less than 20 individuals; in VA, several dozen individuals concentrated in the region of Major Cove and adjacent Big Ball Island, Horse Island Creek, and Deal Creek.

BLOOMING PERIOD: October to early November.

COMMENTS: Spiranthes odorata is a southeastern coastal plain endemic (Weakley 2007) and is near the northern limit of its range at False Cape, VA. Listed as rare (“Active List”) in VA (Weakley 2007).

Spiranthes praecox (Walt.) S. Wats.

Giant Ladies’-tresses, Grass-leaved Ladies’-tresses

LOCATIONS: North Carolina, Dare and Currituck Cos., Cape Hatteras National Seashore north to the VA line. Virginia, City of Virginia Beach (formerly Princess Anne Co.), False Cape, Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge.

HABITAT: Disturbed, wet sands in full sun, thrives along roadsides where periodic mowing discourages competition.

POPULATION SIZE: 1000s of individuals widely distributed throughout the Outer Banks of NC; dozens of individuals at False Cape, VA.

BLOOMING PERIOD: June and July.

COMMENTS: Spiranthes praecox is a southeastern coastal plain endemic (Weakley 2007) and is rare on Atlantic coast barrier islands north of Chesapeake Bay. McCaffrey and Dueser (1990) did not find S. praecox on any of Virginia’s 16 barrier islands just north of Chesapeake Bay, nor did Stalter and Lamont (1990) find it on Assateague Island, VA. Hill (1986) found a single population on Assateague Island, MD, but Lea (pers. comm.) could not relocate it in 1996 and 1997. Stalter and Lamont (pers. obs.) found no populations of S. praecox on Delaware barrier islands in 2006, and Stone (1910) did not report it from any New Jersey barrier islands.

Spiranthes vernalis Engelm. & Gray

Spring Ladies’-tresses

LOCATIONS: Delaware, Sussex Co., Delaware Seashore State Park; Fenwick Island, Fenwick Island State Park. New York, Suffolk Co., Fire Island, Fire Island National Seashore. North Carolina, Carteret Co., Bogue Banks, vicinity of Fort Macon State Park; Currituck Co., Bodie Island, vicinity of Corolla Light. Virginia, Accomack Co., Assateague Island, Assateague Island National Wildlife Refuge; City of Virginia Beach (formerly Princess Anne Co.), False Cape, Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge; Northampton Co., Fisherman Island, Fisherman Island National Wildlife Refuge.

HABITAT: Disturbed, wet sands in full sun, thrives along roadsides where periodic mowing discourages competition; also in freshwater marshes and wet, interdunal swales with graminoids and forbs, often associated with Vaccinium macrocarpon.

POPULATION SIZE: Each locality usually comprised of widespread, small populations or widely scattered individuals; total number of individuals at each site varies from 100s or 1000s to approx. 10.

BLOOMING PERIOD: May (in NC and se VA) to July (early August in NY).

COMMENTS: Spiranthes vernalis is the most common orchid on Atlantic coast barrier islands from NC to NY. Hill (1986) reported it as “widespread” on Assateague Island, MD, and Lea (pers. comm.) relocated it there in 1997 and reported it as “fairly common”. Reed (1964) cited an herbarium collection [11 Jul 1931, Redmond, DOV] of S. vernalis from “behind sand dunes, Ocean City”, Fenwick Island, Worcester Co., MD; we are unaware of any recent efforts to relocate this occurrence. Stone (1910) reported S. vernalis as being “rather frequent along the coast strip” of NJ and listed specific occurrences from Atlantic Co. (Absecon Island, vicinity of Atlantic City and Longport), Cape May Co. (Five Mile Beach Island, vicinity of Wildwood, and Ocean City barrier island), and Ocean Co. (Long Beach Island, vicinity of Beach Haven Terrace and Spray Beach). In 2000, Snyder (pers. comm.) reported extant NJ populations of this orchid “in wet to damp swales behind sand dunes” from Atlantic Co. (Brigantine Island), Cape May Co. (“several locations on barrier islands”), and Ocean Co. (Long Beach Island, vicinity of Holgate). Lamont (1996, 2007) cited two herbarium collections [4 Aug 1911, McCallum, BKL; 27 Jul 1922, Bicknell, NY] of this species from Coney Island, Kings Co., NY and Long Beach, Nassau Co., NY, respectively; extensive attempts by Lamont et al. (1988) to relocate these populations were unsuccessful. Klotz (1986) and McAvoy (1996, pers. comm.) reported S. vernalis from Accomack Co., VA, in disturbed sands on Wallops Island and moist sandy swales on Parramore Island, respectively. McCaffrey and Dueser (1990) reported it from Hog Island and Smith Island, Northampton Co., VA, based upon field work conducted in 1975; in 1996, McAvoy (pers. comm.) relocated the Hog Island population in moist sandy soil at the island’s north end. Listed as rare (“Active List”) in NY (Young 2007).

Tipularia discolor (Pursh) Nutt.

Crane-fly Orchid

LOCATIONS: North Carolina, Dare Co., Bodie Island, Kitty Hawk Woods. Virginia, Northampton Co., Fisherman Island, Fisherman Island National Wildlife Refuge.

HABITAT: In NC occurring in the thin layer of humus of a mature, maritime deciduous forest dominated by Quercus falcata, Q. nigra, and Fagus grandifolia with an understory of Ilex opaca and Cornus florida, on low, gently undulating, old, stable dunes; in VA occurring in thin humus of a mesic maritime woodland community dominated by Prunus serotina with a few scattered individuals of Ilex opaca.

POPULATION SIZE: 1000s of individuals in Kitty Hawk Woods (in a small study plot of approx. 0.5 ha., we counted 434 individual plants in March 2000); one small population of 7 individuals on Fisherman Island.

BLOOMING PERIOD: Mid-July to August.

COMMENTS: Tipularia discolor readily colonizes woodlands in the early stages of development or regrowth (Homoya 1993); such conditions are characteristic of the locality on Fisherman Island, VA. It is notoriously difficult to locate flowering individuals of T. discolor, “so well does their leafless and inconspicuous flowering stalks blend into the sticks and leaves and filtered sunbeams” (Luer 1975); the best time of year to locate this species is during midwinter when the leaves are conspicuous.

Appendix 2.

Annotated checklist of orchids not observed by Lamont and Stalter but reported by others from Atlantic coast barrier islands from North Carolina to New York

Calopogon pallidus Chapman

Pale Grass-pink

LOCATION: Virginia, City of Virginia Beach (formerly Princess Anne Co.), False Cape, Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge.

SOURCE OF REPORT: Knepper et al. (1991); Wright (1991); Virginia Natural Heritage Program (fide Loomis, pers. comm.). These reports were based upon a voucher specimen, originally identified as Calopogon pallidus and deposited at Old Dominion University Herbarium, with the following label data: “Back Bay, Black Gut, Sphagnum swamp, Sandbridge bog, 10 June 1957, V. Bagley s.n., ODU 23508″. [Note: although C. pallidus was reported from Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge by Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Black Gut is located just north of the refuge.] COMMENTS: The above cited Bagley collection at ODU was examined by Douglas H. Goldman (HUH) on 22 Jan 2004 and was reassigned to Calopogon tuberosus. Goldman (pers. comm.) commented: “To date [Aug 2006], I’ve been through 148 herbaria surveying Calopogon and I’ve never seen any C. pallidus specimens from the False Cape/Back Bay area. I’ve been in that area before and the only species collected there was C. tuberosus, which is supposedly locally common in that area. I have a plant list from False Cape State Park from 1/13/91 and it lists C. pallidus, but that is almost surely incorrect (Calopogon, where species are sympatric, seem to be commonly misidentified). The 1992 Atlas of the Virginia Flora does not list this species [C. pallidus] as being from Virginia Beach City Co. or Chesapeake City Co., only Isle of Wright Co. and Suffolk City Co.”.

Liparis liliifolia (L.) Rich, ex Lindi.

Lily-leaved Twayblade

LOCATION: Virginia, City of Virginia Beach (formerly Princess Anne Co.), False Cape, False Cape State Park.

SOURCE OF REPORT: An unvouchered report by Wright (1991) gleaned from an earlier report by Fernald (1935).

COMMENTS: Fernald (1935) began the fifth paragraph of Midsummer vascular plants of southeastern Virginia by noting, “Farther south, in the damp depressions in the sand between Back Bay and the dunes of False Cape is another area of localized coastal plain plants .. .”. The next paragraph begins, “The rich woodlands, as already noted by Mr. Griscom and me, contain many species of the interior most unexpected on the outer edge of the coastal plain, close to the Atlantic. Our browsings brought to light many other plants of rich woods, several of them amazingly remote from their inland centers: Thelypteris hexagonoptera (Michx.) Weath., Panicum Boscii Poir., Liparis liliifolia (L.) Richard … Yet in the woods near Little Creek it is less than a mile from the sea.” At first reading, it may appear that Fernald reported L. liliifolia from False Cape; however, Fernald’s voucher collection confirms the locality as “Little Neck, Princess Anne Co., Virginia” [Fernald, Griscom & Long 3869, HUH]. Later, Fernald (1936) identified Little Neck as “projecting into Lynnhaven Bay”, on the mainland just west of Cape Henry. We therefore conclude that Wright’s (1991) report of L. liliifolia from False Cape State Park is based upon a Fernald et al. collection and report from the nearby mainland. Additionally, we have not seen a voucher specimen of L. liliifolia collected from False Cape State Park, nor does the park provide suitable habitat to support a population of L. liliifolia.

Liparis loesellii (L.) Rich.

Loesel’s Twayblade

LOCATIONS: New Jersey, Atlantic Co., Absecon Island; Ocean Co., Long Beach Island. New York, Nassau Co., Long Beach; Queens Co., Rockaway Beach.

SOURCE OF REPORTS: Stone (1910) reported one occurrence of L. loesellii from the southern tip of Absecon Island in the vicinity of Longport, and two occurrences from Long Beach Island in the vicinity of Beach Haven Terrace and Surf City. Lamont (1995, 1996) cited two herbarium collections [26 Aug 1900, Bicknell, NY; 27 Jun 1896, Mulford, BKL] of this species from Long Beach, Nassau Co., and Rockaway Beach, Queens Co., respectively.

COMMENTS: We are unaware of any recent efforts to relocate the three NJ occurrences reported by Stone (1910). Extensive attempts by Lamont et al. (1988) to relocate the two NY occurrences were unsuccessful. In our opinion, it is likely that these populations have been extirpated due to habitat destruction.

Malaxis unifolia Michx.

Green Adder’s-mouth

LOCATIONS: North Carolina, Dare Co., Bodie Island, Nags Head Woods Ecological Preserve. Virginia, City of Virginia Beach (formerly Princess Anne Co.), False Cape, False Cape State Park.

SOURCE OF REPORTS: A voucher specimen collected from Nags Head Woods [12 May 1976, Gifford, CAHA], and an unvouchered report by Wright (1991) from False Cape State Park gleaned from an earlier report by Fernald (1935).

COMMENTS: In our opinion, it is probable that M. unifolia still persists at Nags Head Woods, but extensive efforts to relocate it have been unsuccessful (Stalter and Lamont 1997). Fernald (1935) collected M. unifolia “in rich woods, Back Bay, Princess Anne Co., Virginia” [Fernald, Griscom & Long 4622, HUH], but we cannot determine with certainty if the collection was from False Cape. The “Back Bay” citation by Fernald (1935) may refer to the town of Back Bay located on the adjacent mainland just west of Drum Point (see additional discussion under comments for Liparis liliifolia). Fernald (1935) did specifically cite “False Cape” as the locality for many of his collections (e.g., Pogonia ophioglossoides).

Platanthera ciliaris (L.) Lindi.

Yellow Fringed Orchid

LOCATION: North Carolina, Dare Co., Bodie Island, Nags Head Woods Ecological Preserve.

SOURCE OF REPORT: Krings (2002) reported Platanthera ciliaris as a “new addition to the Outer Banks flora”, based upon a voucher specimen [6 Aug 1976, Gifford s.n., CAHA 657] deposited in the herbarium of the National Park Service Cape Hatteras National Seashore Unit, Manteo, NC. The specimen was originally identified by Gifford as Habenaria ciliaris, and in 2001 Krings annotated the collection and updated the name to Platanthera ciliaris.

COMMENTS: We examined the above cited Gifford collection and reassigned it to Platanthera cristata. Morphological differences in flower structure (e.g., spur length and rostellum shape) clearly distinguish P. cristata from P. ciliaris (FNA 2002). A population of P. cristata was located at Nags Head Woods by Stalter and Lamont (1997). It is our opinion that P. ciliaris should be excluded from the orchid flora of Atlantic coast barrier islands from NC to NY.

Platanthera lacera (Michx.) G. Don in R. Sweet

Ragged Fringed Orchid

LOCATION: New Jersey, Ocean Co., Long Beach Island.

SOURCE OF REPORT: Stone (1910) reported two occurrences of P. lacera from Long Beach Island in the vicinity of Beach Haven Terrace and Holgate.

COMMENTS: We are unaware of any recent efforts to relocate these two occurrences. In our opinion it is likely that these populations have been extirpated due to habitat destruction.

Spiranthes ovalis Lindi.

Oval Ladies’-tresses

LOCATION: North Carolina, Carteret Co., Cape Lookout National Seashore, Shackleford Banks.

SOURCE OF REPORT: An unvouchered report by Lewis (1917).

COMMENTS: Lewis’ (1917) report of Spiranthes ovalis from Shackleford Banks contains some peculiarities. Spiranthes ovalis is first mentioned on page 25 of his publication, following a list of “ten species [from Shackleford Banks] which are stated by Small not to occur north of South Carolina”. The ten species are listed alphabetically and annotated with range data. Immediately following the list is an indented paragraph that begins with: “Spiranthes ovalis has also not been reported from this State.” Why wasn’t S. ovalis included in the original list of new state records? Then on page 28, in the section of the publication that lists the plants of Shackleford Banks, Lewis includes a single taxon under the Orchidaceae: “Spiranthes ovalis Lindi. (?); (Gyrostachys parviflora (Chapm.) Small (?)).” Lewis’ question marks give the impression that he was uncertain about his identification. On page 11, Lewis states: “Exact determination of the plants found is of the highest importance in such an account as this. This has been made possible by the kindness of Dr. John K. Small, of the New York Botanical Garden, to whom specimens of practically all the plants listed were sent.” We could not find Lewis’ Spiranthes collection at The New York Botanical Garden (NY), nor has it been deposited at the UNC- Chapel Hill herbarium (fide McCormick, NCU). Extensive efforts by Stalter and Lamont (1999) to relocate 5. ovalis on Shackleford Banks were unsuccessful. Correll (1937), Radford et al. (1964), and Weakley (2007) all reported a restricted range for S. ovalis in NC, limited to the piedmont physiographic province. In our opinion, Lewis’ (1917) report is probably based upon a misidentification of another species of Spiranthes. According to Sheviak and Brown (FNA 2002), only S. ovalis var. erostellata Catling occurs in NC and adjacent states.

Copyright Torrey Botanical Society Oct-Dec 2007

(c) 2007 Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. Provided by ProQuest Information and Learning. All rights Reserved.




comments powered by Disqus