May 19, 2008
12 Species on the Brink of Extinction
The Wildlife Conservation Society has released a list of the
"Rarest of the Rare," a dozen animals most in danger of extinction.
The eclectic list includes birds, mammals, fish, reptiles,
amphibians, and insects. Some are well known, such as the northern right
whale and Sumatran rhino,
while others are more obscure, including Abbot's booby, an ocean-going bird
that only nests on Christmas Island.
Endangered Species Day. They are:
booby: A large black-and-white seabird that breeds on Christmas Island, a remote
Australian island in the Indian Ocean.
- Addax: A nocturnal antelope species with long
spiral horns, found the sand dunes of the Sahara desert.
shark: Bottom-dwelling, nocturnal predators once common throughout the
Northeast Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean and Black seas, but now
florican: A large terrestrial bustard bird native to Cambodia, Nepal,
Vietnam, and India.
tamarin: A small primate that sleeps in tree holes dug out by woodpeckers
and feeds on insects, fruit, and plants. Discovered on the island of Superagui,
Brazil, in 1990, there are now only 400 in the wild.
roofed turtle: One of Myanmar's seven native turtles, once abundant in the
major rivers of central and southern Burma, threatened by hunting and egg
of Sri Lanka: Of the 53 endemic species of dragonfly found in Sri Lanka, at
least 20 are threatened.
arrow poison frog: An amphibian native to Panama, threatened by a
highly-infectious fungal disease.
Atlantic right whale: Hunted since the 10th century, only 350 of
these slow-moving, 220,000-pound (100,000 kg) cetaceans remain.
iguana: A reptile native to two isolated locations in the arid southwestern Dominican
hippopotamus: A small hippo from the Upper Guinean Forest of Liberia,
Guinea, Ivory Coast, and Sierra Leone.
rhino: Also known as the hairy or Asian two-horned rhinoceros, fewer than 300
survive today in the subtropical and tropical dry forests of Indonesia and
Threats to each species vary widely. In the case of Abbot's
booby, the introduction of yellow crazy ants to Easter Island has
severely altered their nesting habitat. Meanwhile, the addax has been severely
impacted by desertification of its habitat and overhunting. Other species
suffer from diseases, as in the case of the golden arrow poison frog, or
poaching for the Chinese medicinal trade, which has reduced the population of
Sumatran rhinos to fewer than 300 individuals.
The 2007 World Conservation Union (IUCN) Red List revealed a
continuing rise in the number of species threatened with extinction. Although
only a fraction of all plant and animal species have been evaluated, the number
of species listed as threatened stands at 16,306, an increase of 188 species
"'Rarest of the Rare' is a snapshot of just a handful
of the most critically endangered species that serves to illustrate their
plight and inspire the public to join the fight for their continued
survival," said Kent Redford, director of the Wildlife Conservation
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