August 3, 2008

Ars Scientifica

By Phillips, Anna Lena

An art-science collaboration yields rich insights Joint efforts between historically distinct disciplines raise a lot of questions- and, sometimes, eyebrows. In the case of art-science collaborations, skepticism can threaten to jettison experimentation: What can art say that science hasn't already said?

An exhibit at the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C., suggests some answers to this question. Taxa, a series of paintings by Isabella Kirkland, groups species together in innovative ways that can stimulate conversation about human impact on the environment.

A visual artist and a research associate in aquatic biology at the California Academy of Sciences, Kirkland had already cultivated knowledge of and respect for the science of taxonomy when she began the series. "I had been working on individual, local endangered species," she says. "As the millennium was corning to an end, I decided to work on a grand scale-something more like a time capsule." The result of this exploration was the first painting, "Descendant" (1999), which portrays 61 species listed as endangered (or, in some cases, "presumed extinct") in the mainland United States, Hawaii or Central America.

Five subsequent paintings point up other issues in conservation science and biodiversity. "Ascendant" (2000) portrays species that have been introduced to the United States and are thriving.

"Trade" (2001, shown here) includes species that people value, harvest and sell, and whose populations have thus been depleted. The work's vivid colors underscore the human desire to own these creatures. "Gone" (2004) catalogues full-species, worldwide extinctions. Its colors are more subdued, making the piece a memorial to the organisms shown. Kirkland is currently working on Nova, three new paintings that depict species discovered since the passage of the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 1973.

Planning compositions that portray such great numbers of species with anatomical accuracy is a challenge, so Kirkland decided at the outset to use a time-tested genre. "The Dutch masters' still lifes looked pretty good after 400 years-you can pick out the genera of the bugs," she says. The paintings in Taxa use the genre to great effect. The large canvases are packed with life, but each animal and plant is rendered distinctly.

The series is the product of painstaking research. "I begin with the data," Kirkland says. She reads current scientific literature to find new leads, collecting detailed information on particular species. When she decides to include a species, she tries to see a specimen of it so that she can draw it at life size. "People are very generous with their time," she says. "Every time I go into any museum, I'm so profoundly shaken by the number of man-hours it represents. That's part of what I'm trying to laud."

Kirkland is modest about her hopes for this integration of biology and art. "If I inspire even three people to become taxonomists, I've won," she says. "They're not training taxonomists anymore-it doesn't have the bling of genetics." But considering species' differences and similarities is essential for our knowledge of how the world works, she believes. She also hopes the paintings will inspire people to "pay attention to biodiversity and think about their actions in terms of it." And the medium of painting itself has advantages: It can "get people to slow down" and have a deep experience of the art.

The work offers insights for visual art as well. "Nature art has sort of a bad name in the 'real' art world," says Kirkland. "I wanted to change that, to depict wildlife in a way that's not naive." But the paintings do not sacrifice artistry for accuracy. The lush, wellbalanced compositions invite the viewer's eye to travel around the canvas.

"The species in each painting don't belong together-so it's a fantasy in that regard," she says. Perhaps paradoxically, by removing species from their habitats, the paintings acquire the power to change our perception of the plants and animals within them. In this sense, Kirkland's work moves beyond the representation of scientific ideas to offer new ways of thinking about the organisms she depicts.

To broaden the audience for these works, Kirkland maintains a Web site, Users can explore the paintings and read more about select species. The Nova series will be added to the site once it is complete. She is also producing a series of three- quarter-size prints of the paintings. But the best way to experience these works will be to see them live and up close. The free exhibit, in the upstairs gallery of the National Academy of Sciences, runs April 10 to August 25 of this year.

A basic test for art-science might be whether it succeeds when judged by the standards of each discipline. The Roman poet Horace's dictum-"teach and delight"-comes to mind. Or, to use more-modern terms, is the project accurate and useful? And is it pleasing-does it succeed aesthetically? It will be revealing to consider other artscience collaborations in a similar light. As for Kirkland's paintings, it seems safe to answer both questions with a resounding yes.-Anna Lena Phillips

"Trade" (2001, 3' x 4'), by Isabella Kirkland, shows species that are prized-in whole or in part-by human beings. So that viewers can identify the species portrayed, Kirkland has created a visual key and species list (reproduced on the next two pages). Orchids and beetles feature prominently; a golden-headed lion tamarin (number 4 in the key) is nearly dwarfed by a mountain sweet pitcher plant (number 52).

This visual key for "Trade" (2001) corresponds to the species list on the facing page. All five completed paintings, as well as their keys, can be viewed on Kirkland's Web site,

Species List for "Trade"

1 Elephant ivory, Loxodonta africana

2 Pelt, clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa

3 Virginia flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus

4 Golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas

5 Green tree monitor, Varanus prasinus

6 Satanic leaf-tailed gecko, Uroplatus phantasticus

7 Yellow-headed day gecko, Phelsuma klemmeri

8 Radiated tortoise, Geochelone radiata

9 Golden poison dart frog, Phyllobates terribilis

10 Madagascan tree boa, Boa mandrita

11 Hawksbill sea turtle shell, Eretmochelys imbricate

12 Ruby poison dart frog, Epipedobates parvulus

13 Brookesia gecko, Brookesia peyrierasi

14 Gumey's pitta, Pitta gurneyi

15 Blue lorikeet, Vini peruviana

16 Red siskin, Carduelis cucullata

17 Lear's or indigo macaw, Anodorhynchus leari

18 Toucan barbet, Semnornis ramphastinus

19 Seven-colored tanager, Tangara fastuosa

20 Trumpet triton, Charonia tritonis

21 Glory-of-the-seas cone, Conus gloriamaris

22 Loebbecke's murex, Murex loebbecki

23 Golden cowrie, Cypraea aurantium

24 Red coral, Corallium rubrum

25 Fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa

26 Peruvian swallowtail, Papilio androgeus

27 Queen Alexandra's birdwing, Ornithoptera alexandrae

28 Jamaican giant swallowtail, Papillio homerus Fabricius

29 Luzon peacock swallowtail, Papilio chikae

30 Comet moth, Argema mittrei

31 Madagascan sunset moth, Chrysiridia ripheus

32 Agrias butterfly, Agrias claudina lugens

33 Tissue paper butterfly, Idea jasonia Westwood

34 Hawk moth, Xanthopan morgani praedicta

35 Atlas beetle, Chalcosoma Caucasus

36 Beyer's scarab, Plusiotis beyeri

37 Gold scarab, Plusiotis resplendens

38 Jewel beetle, Euchroma gigantea

39 Stag beetle, Lucanus cervus

40 Long-horned beech beetle, Rosalia alpina

41 Golden ground beetle, Carabus auratus

42 Metallic leaf chafer, Plusiotis chrysargyrea

43 Jewel scarab, Chrysina aurigans

44 Orchid mantis, Hymenopus coronatus

45 Slipper orchid, Paphiopedilum sanderianum

46 Ghost orchid, Polyrrhiza lindenii or Polyradicion lindenii

47 Red vanda, Renanthera Imschootiana

48 Slipper orchid, Paphiopedilum lawrenceanum

49 Comet orchid, Angraecum sesquipedale

50 Slipper orchid, Paphiopedilum armeniacum

51 Gray's lily, Lilium grayi

52 Mountain sweet pitcher, Sarracenia rubra ssp. jonesii

53 American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius

54 Wooden table, monkey-puzzle tree, Araucaria araucaria

55 Rainbow plant, Byblis gigantea

56 Pitcher plant, Nepenthes macrophylla

57 Iranian iris, Iris paradoxa

58 Wooden stand, Patagonian cypress tree, Fitzroya cupressoides

59 Coca plant, Erythroxylum coca

60 Rosy periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus

61 Venus fly trap, Dionaea muscipula

62 Seeds, three-cornered palm, Neodypsis decaryi

63 Nellie Cory cactus, Coryphantha minima

64 Peyote, Lophophora diffusa

65 Jabali pincushion, Coryphantha werdermannii

66 Matsutake, Tricholoma magnivelare

67 White truffle, Tuber magnatum Pico

68 Priam's birdwing, Troides priamus

Copyright Sigma XI-The Scientific Research Society May/Jun 2008

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