August 16, 2008

Archaeologists Uncover Portal To Mythical Mayan Underworld

A maze of stone temples in underground caves which ancient Mayans believed was a portal where dead souls entered the underworld have been discovered by Mexican archaeologists.

Explorers said some of the caves were submerged in water and contained human bones.

Scuba clad divers discovered the stone ruins of eleven sacred temples and what could be the remains of human sacrifices at the site in the Yucatan Peninsula.

Mayans believed the underground complex of water-filled caves leading into dry chambers "” including an underground road stretching some 330 feet "” was the path to a mythical underworld, known as Xibalba.

Guillermo de Anda, one of the lead investigators at the site, said according to an ancient Mayan scripture, the Popol Vuh, the route was filled with obstacles, including rivers filled with scorpions, blood and pus and houses shrouded in darkness or swarming with shrieking bats.

He said the souls of the dead followed a mythical dog who could see at night.

Excavations over the past five months in the Yucatan caves revealed stone carvings and pottery left for the dead.

"They believed that this place was the entrance to Xibalba. That is why we have found the offerings there," de Anda said.

Before mysteriously abandoning their cities around 900 A.D., the Mayans built soaring pyramids and elaborate palaces in Central America and southern Mexico.

The sacred text, the Popol Vuh, describes the torturous journey to Xibalba in the sacred text, originally written in hieroglyphic script on long scrolls and later transcribed by Spanish conquerors.

de Anda it is very likely this area was protected as a sacred depository for the dead or for the passage of their souls.

He said his team had recovered ceramic offerings along with bones in some temples.

Other Mayan groups who inhabited southern Mexico and northern Guatemala and Belize had their own entrances to the underworld, which archeologists have discovered at other sites, almost always in cave systems buried deep in the jungle.

One 1,900-year-old ceramic vase was found at the Yucatan site, but most of the artifacts date back to between 700 and 850 A.D.

"These sacred tunnels and caves were natural temples and annexes to temples on the surface," said de Anda.

Image Courtesy Tammara Thomsen