September 16, 2008

Vatican Offers No Apology To Darwin Over Evolution

An official announcement from the Vatican on Tuesday said the theory of evolution was compatible with the Bible but planned no posthumous apology to Charles Darwin for the cold reception it gave him 150 years ago.

The Vatican's culture minister, Archbishop Gianfranco Ravasi, spoke at the announcement of a Rome conference of scientists, theologians and philosophers to be held next March marking the 150th anniversary of the publication of Darwin's "The Origin of Species".

Darwin's theory of evolution conflicted with the literal biblical account of creation, causing Christian churches to be hostile towards his teachings.

A leading Anglican churchman, Rev. Malcolm Brown, said earlier this week the Church of England owed Darwin an apology for the way his ideas were received by Anglicans in Britain.

Pope Pius XII described evolution as a valid scientific approach to the development of humans in 1950 and Pope John Paul reiterated that in 1996. But Ravasi said the Vatican had no intention of apologizing for earlier negative views.

But Ravasi said that Darwin's theories were "never condemned by the Catholic Church nor was his book ever banned" and that maybe we should abandon the idea of issuing apologies as if history was a court eternally in session.

As described in the Bible, creationism is the belief that God created the world in six days. The Catholic Church does not read the Genesis account of creation literally, saying it is an allegory for the way God created the world.

Other Christians, however, mostly conservative Protestants in the United States, read Genesis literally and object to evolution being taught in biology class in public high schools.

The Republican candidate for the U.S. vice presidency, Sarah Palin, said in 2006 that she supported teaching both creationism and evolution in schools but has subsequently said creationism does not have to be part of curriculum.

The Catholic Church teaches "theistic evolution," a stand that accepts evolution as a scientific theory and sees no reason why God could not have used a natural evolutionary process in the forming of the human species.

Theistic Evolution objects to using evolution as the basis for an atheist philosophy that denies God's existence or any divine role in creation. It also objects to using Genesis as a scientific text.

Creationism belongs to the strictly theological sphere and could not be used ideologically in science, Ravasi said.

"The gathering would be an important contribution to explaining the Catholic stand on evolution," said Professor Philip Sloan of Notre Dame University, which is jointly holding next year's conference with Rome's Pontifical Gregorian University.

He said in the United States, and now elsewhere, we have an ongoing public debate over evolution that has social, political and religious dimensions,

"Most of this debate has been taking place without a strong Catholic theological presence, and the discussion has suffered accordingly," he said.

Pope Benedict discussed these issues with his former doctoral students at their annual meeting in 2006. He spoke out against biblical literalism in a speech in Paris last week.