August 11, 2009
EU Introduced Environmental Policy To Finnish Agriculture
EU membership introduced environmental policy to Finnish agriculture and gradually taught dissenting branches of administration how to cooperate with each other. This was not achieved solely through steering by regulation; the associated learning process and its support in policy preparation and implementation were equally important.
In her dissertation study Special Advisor Laura Kröger (M.Sc. Agr. & For.) from MTT charted how the environmental policy of Finnish agriculture has changed during Finland's EU membership. The study examined the formation and implementation of policy from the perspective of policy learning.
- Policy learning as a concept has lately been the focus of great interest in European policy studies. Policy learning is learning which takes place in the decision-making or policy-making process. In Finland it has manifested itself, for example, in agricultural and environmental administrations learning to cooperate, says Kröger.
NO COOPERATION BEFORE EU MEMBERSHIP
Prior to EU membership in 1995 Finnish agriculture had no binding environmental policy in place; cooperation between agricultural and environmental authorities was practically non-existent.
- In public social debate, environmental issues were not really associated with agriculture until the 1990s. The first study charting the environmental impact of agriculture was only completed in 1992, and classified the load of agriculture as being on a par with that of built-up areas.
EU membership has introduced new elements to agricultural policy, the most notable of them being an environmental subsidy system for agriculture. - The drafting of the first environmental subsidy program on the verge of membership was a difficult process, as agricultural and environmental administrations were still deeply entrenched in their own positions. The stage had been set as agriculture versus environment.
RAPID DEVELOPMENT IN TEN YEARS
Major developments have taken place during the past ten years. New operating models have emerged, accompanied by the strengthened view that solutions to environmental problems in agriculture require cooperation between the different parties involved.
Laura Kröger discovered a new cooperation network at ministry level, which she calls the agri-environmental policy group. This group considers that environmental issues must be dealt with in order to retain the social acceptability of agriculture.
Ideally, cooperation at the regional level, which is charged with implementing policies, takes place voluntarily without obligating regulations. Moreover, a conscious choice will have been made to proceed with issues on which unanimity has been reached.
However, only two traditional networks or coalitions appear to be active in the sector, one being agriculturally orientated, the other focused on the environment. - These results pertain to the region of Uusimaa, which I examined as an example of regional administration, Kröger notes.
Regional level authorities include Employment and Economic Development Centers and Environment Centers. - One reason why informal cooperation cannot properly expand is that Employment and Economic Development Centers have so many statutory duties and limited resources. For this part, implementation at the regional level has not been sufficiently supported, Kröger says.
RESULTS SUPPORT EUROPEANISATION STUDIES
Laura Kröger points out that the more the new regulations differ from a country's previous practices, the more challenging it will be to implement environmental regulations in EU Member States.
- Legislative amendments are quick to make, but that alone does not determine the programmers functionality in practice. It would be important to establish the best implementation methods and the structures which best support implementation.
- There has been a great deal of debate on this subject in Europeanisation studies. The same problems can be found in other Member States, too, Kröger concludes.
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