September 15, 2010
Researchers Find Selfishness Can Sometimes Help The Common Good
Scientists have overturned the conventional wisdom that cooperation is essential for the well-being of the whole population, finding evidence that slackers can sometimes help the common good. Researchers, from Imperial College London, the Universities of Bath and Oxford, University College London and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology studied populations of yeast and found that a mixture of 'co-operators' and 'cheats' grew faster than a more utopian one of only "co-operators." The study, publishing next week in the online, open access journal PLoS Biology, used both laboratory experiments and a mathematical model to understand why and how a little "selfishness" can benefit the whole population.
In the study, the "co-operator" yeast produce a protein called invertase that breaks down sugar (sucrose) to give food (glucose) that is available to the rest of the population. The "cheats" eat the broken down sugar but don't make invertase themselves, and so save their energy.
Dr. Ivana Gudelj, NERC Advanced Fellow and Lecturer in Applied Mathematics at Imperial College London added: "Our work illustrates that the commonly used language of 'co-operators' and 'cheats' could in fact obscure the reality. When the addition of more invertase producers reduces the fitness of all, it is hard to see invertase production as co-operation, even if it behaves in a more classical co-operative manner, benefitting all, when rare."
The researchers suggest similar situations may exist in other species where 'cheats' help rather than hinder the population.
On the Net: