October 13, 2005

Nuclear-Biological-Chemical (NBC) Defense Systems

By Anonymous

A wide range of items and systems provide today's warfighter with contamination avoidance, protection, decontamination and obscuration capabilities. Several representative examples are provided below.

Contamination Avoidance

The United States has fielded several types of nuclear detection and monitoring systems to assist in contamination avoidance. A family of radioactivity detection indication and computation (Radiac) equipment is being fielded to U.S. forces to upgrade 30- year-old technology with digital equipment that incorporates advances in modern electronics.

Radiac provides soldiers and comman- ; ders with nuclear radiation detection equipment, allowing them to fight effectively and survive on the nuclear battlefield. It also minimizes nuclear radiation exposure of troops during such peacetime missions as peacekeeping, nuclear-accident response and recovery of vehicles and equipment containing radioactive material.

The AN/UDR-13 Radiac Set is a compact, handheld, pocket-size tactical radiation meter. It measures and displays gamma dose rate and total gamma/neutron cumulative dose in a battlefield environment.

A push-button pad enables mode selection, functional control and the setting of audio and visual alarm thresholds for both dose rate and mission dose. A "sleep" mode with automatic wake-up enhances battery life. A liquid crystal display provides data readout and warning-mode messages. As a replacement for the older IM-93/PP- 1578, UDR-13 improvements include prompt dose measurement, including neutrons, alarms and measures rate, backlit display and stable readings and calibration. It does not need a separate charger.

The AN/VDR-2 Radiac Set detects and measures nuclear radiation from fallout and radioisotopes. The system replaces the older IM- 174 and AN/PDR-27. It performs ground radiological surveys from vehicles or, in the dismounted mode, as a handheld instrument. The set can also provide a quantitative measure of radiation to help personnel, equipment and supply decontamination operations.

Components of the Radiac set include the Radiac meter IM-243, probe DT-616 and a pouch with strap. Kits are available as common table of allowances items for installation of the Radiac set in various military vehicles.

The set includes an audible and/or visual alarm that is compatible with vehicular nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protective systems in armored vehicles, and it also interfaces with vehicular power systems and intercoms.

The AN/PDR-75 Radiac Set measures the prompt and residual gamma doses and neutron doses stored on the DT-236 indivictual dosimeter from 1 to 1,000 centigray (cGy). The system provides a new operational capability to monitor and record the total dose exposure of individual personnel to gamma and neutron radiation. It measures total neutron and gamma doses from O to 1,000 cGy, and it responds to and measures prompt radiation from nuclear bursts. It will be used to calculate unit radiation status and to perform medical triage and assist in unit reconstitution.

The AN/PDR-77 Radiac Set detects and measures alpha, beta, gamma and X-ray radiation. The system replaces the older AN/PDR-56F and AN/ PDR-60, which relied on aging technology and were not sensitive enough to accomplish the Army's alpha detection mission.

The AN/PDR-77 incorporates commercially available measurement electronics, an alpha probe, beta gamma probe and X-ray probe. The set has a digital liquid crystal display, is auto-ranging and has settable audio and/or visual alarm thresholds. This is the primary Radiac device to support the storage and movement of nuclear weapons, respond to nuclear accidents and maintain Army equipment containing radioactive materials.

Chemical Detection

The M21 Automatic Chemical Agent Alarm is the first standoff chemical agent detector approved for fielding to the soldier. It gives early warning of blister and nerve agents up to five kilometers, thus allowing field commanders to identify and maneuver around contaminated areas. An automatic scanning, passive infrared sensor, it detects agent vapor clouds by changes that the vapor causes in the background infrared spectra. Scanning a 60-degree arc, the M21 sounds a horn and illuminates either a blister or nerve light. It is currently being fielded. In addition to tripod-mounted configurations, the M21 is mounted on a mast on the M93A1 Fox NBC reconnaissance system.

The M22 Chemical Agent Alarm is an off-the-shelf alarm system capable of detecting and identifying standard blister and nerve agents. The M22 used the foreign comparative testing program for down-selection of the United Kingdom's GID-3. The M22 system is manportable, operates independently after system startup, and provides an audible and visual alarm.

The M22 system also provides a communications interface for automatic battlefield warning and reporting. The M22 is an improvement over the M8A1 automatic chemical agent alarm system in four major areas: it provides simultaneous detection and warning of nerve and blister agents; it is significantly more sensitive than the M8A1; it can operate in a collective protection environment; and it is much less responsive to interference, thus reducing false alarms. The M22 is currently fielded to the Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps.

The Chemical Agent Monitor (CAM) and the Improved CAM (ICAM) provide a means of quickly locating the presence or absence of nerve- and mustard-agent contamination on personnel and equipment.

CAM is a handheld device used by troops in full protective clothing after an attack or exposure to a contaminated area. It provides fast low-level detection of nerve and mustard vapors, differentiates between nerve and mustard agents, provides an indication of the relative magnitude of the hazard present and is not affected by most common forms of battlefield interference.

The use of the CAM on a chemical battlefield lowers the risk commanders may have to take when reducing the level of mission- oriented protection posture in a combat situation. CAM gives commanders the ability to quickly monitor for contamination, thereby allowing soldiers and equipment to remain engaged in their combat missions. CAM is also used to check the effectiveness of decontamination operations.

Like CAM, ICAM is a handheld, soldieroperated, post-attack device for monitoring chemical agent contamination. It detects chemical agent vapors by sensing molecular ions of specific motilities (time of flight), and uses timing and microprocessor techniques to reject interference. The monitor detects and discriminates among nerve and mustard agent vapors. ICAM consists of a drift tube, signal processor, molecular sieve, membrane, confidence tester, dust filters, buzzer and battery pack. The monitor measures 4 inches x7 inches x 15 inches and weighs approximately 5 pounds. ICAM differs from CAM in its greater reliability (an estimated 300 percent improvement), faster start-up time (one-tenth of the time) and significantly reduced maintenance costs (an estimated $135 million cost savings over the life of the system).

The Joint Service Lightweight Standoff Chemical Agent Detector (JSLSCAD) is a new detection system designed to provide American 21st-century warfighters with state-of-the-art capability in detecting nerve, blister and blood agent vapor clouds. JSLSCAD is a fully automatic detection system that searches the surrounding atmosphere for chemical agent vapor clouds. It is the first chemical detection system to furnish 360-degree on-the-move coverage from ground-, air- and sea-based platforms at distances of up to five kilometers. JSLSCAD will provide warfighters of the four armed services with early warning to avoid contaminated battlespaces or, if avoidance is not possible, time to don protective masks and clothing.

M21 automatic chemical agent alarm.

JSLSCAD is a passive infrared (IR) systern that detects the presence of chemical agent vapors by processing energy collected in the 8 to 12 micron region of the electromagnetic spectrum. It compares the collected IR spectra against a library of known agent spectra. When detection is made, JSLSCAD identifies the agent cloud and alerts the warfighter with audible and visual alarms.

Intended JSLSCAD applications include various ground vehicle, aerial, shipboard and fixed-emplacement platforms, including the following: M93A1 Pox vehicle; joint service light NBC reconnaissance system (JSLNBCRS); interim armored vehicle NBC reconnaissance system; Humvee; C-130 aircraft; CH-53 helicopter; unmanned aerial vehicles; ships; and fixed-site installations. The design of the JSLSCAD provides for communication with the NBC joint warning and reporting network (JWARN) and the multipurpose integrated chemical agent detector (MICAD).

Biological Detection

The M31/M31A1 Biological Integrated Detection System (BIDS) mitigates the effects of biological warfare attacks during all phases of a campaign. As a corps-level asset, it is employed by a dedicated biological defense company to detect large-area biological attacks. The BIDS network provides the basis for warning and confirming that a biological attack has occurred. The system provides presumptive identification and produces a safety- configured sample for later laboratory analysis.

The M31/M31A1 detecti\on system is made up of a shelter (S788 lightweight multipurpose shelter) mounted on a dedicated vehicle (M1097 heavy Humvee) and equipped with a biological detection suite. The systems include a trailer-mounted 15-kilowatt generator (PU- 801) to provide electrical power, a global positioning system (GPS) receiver (AN/PSN-11 PLGR), tactical and long-range communications equipment (SINCGARS and Harris HF radios) and a meteorological sensor.

The BIDS program development was initiated following the Persian Gulf War. To fill the urgent need for a biological detection system while at the same time fielding mature technologies, an evolutionary acquisition strategy was developed. Initially a nondevelopmental item (NDI), BIDS (M31), consisting primarily of off-the-shelf instrumentation, provided a limited manual detection and identification capability. This was followed by a preplanned product improvement (P^sup 3^I) BIDS (M31A1) with an expanded and semiautomated detection and identification capability. NDI BIDS was fielded in 1996 and the P3I BIDS in 1999 to reserve and active component units, respectively.

BIDS uses multiple complementary technologies to detect various characteristics of a biological aerosol attack. BIDS integrates aerodynamic particle sizing, luminescence, fluorescence, flow cytometry, mass spectrometry and immunoassay technologies in a hierarchical, layered manner to increase detection confidence and system reliability. BIDS detects all types of biological agents and identifies specific agents of interest. The system can be easily upgraded or modified to identify other additional agents, based on changes in threat conditions. NDI BIDS will detect biological warfare agents in less than 15 minutes and identify any four agents, simultaneously, in less than 45 minutes. P^sup 3^I BIDS will detect any eight agents in less than 10 minutes and identify them, simultaneously, in less than 30 minutes. Both systems collect a sample for confirmatory analysis and report detection and identification results by voice transmission.

The M93/M93A1 Fox Nuclear-Biological-Chemical Reconnaissance System (NBCRS), an upgrade to the existing M93 vehicle, detects, identifies and marks areas of nuclear and chemical contamination, and reports accurate information to supported commanders in real time.

The M93 NBCRS is an Army-improved version of the German TPZl Fuchs wheeled armored vehicle. It is equipped with a fully integrated nuclear and chemical detection system, warning and communications capability, and it can also sample NBC contamination for future analysis. The system can collect soil, water and vegetation samples for later analysis; mark areas of nuclear and chemical contamination; and transmit, in real time, NBC information to unit commanders in the area of operation. The hazards to the NBCRS crew are minimized through the presence of vehicle NBC collective protection, and by providing positive overpressure with heating and cooling for crew members.

The M93A1 Block I modification lets soldiers detect chemical contamination at a distance through the use of a standoff detector (M21 RSCAAL). The onboard computer's multipurpose integrated chemical agent alarm (MICAD) automatically integrates contamination information from sensors with input from onboard navigation and meteorological systems, and it rapidly transmits it to the maneuver control system. The M93A1 also reduces the crew size from four to three soldiers.

The Block II modification NBCRS incorporates enhanced chemical and biological detectors that will allow on-the-move standoff chemical agent detection. New subsystems, such as the chemical and biological mass spectrometer, will improve the detection and identification of liquid chemical agents while providing a first- time biological agent detection capability to the reconnaissance platform. There is also a 32 to 57 percent reduction in route reconnaissance mission time. Integration of the common digitized division/corps NBC technical architecture will allow for expanding and upgrading the onboard computers at minimal cost.

M93A1 Fox nuclear-biological-chemical reconnaissance system.

The Joint Services Lightweight NBC Reconnaissance System (JSLNBCRS) will provide point and standoff intelligence for real- time field assessment of NBC hazards.

The Joint Biological Point Detection System (JBPDS) is the first fully automated biological threat agent detection, collection and identification suite designed for employment by all four services.

JBPDS is a modular system that provides both continuous and real- time aerosol detection with presumptive identification for up to 10 agents simultaneously within 18 minutes. Upon positive identification, the user is alerted by both an audible and visual alarm. Each identified sample is safely collected and packaged for laboratory analysis. Both remote and local monitoring is available. The modular design of the JBPDS provides not only an open architecture for upgrade insertion, but also the capability to remain in operation even if one of the components fails.

The JBPDS is available in four different configurations (portable, shelter, shipboard and trailer) to provide a common detection and identification capability for joint interoperability and supportability. JBPDS integrated platforms include biological integrated detection system (BIDS), Stryker reconnaissance vehicle (RV), surface ships and joint service lightweight nuclear biological and chemical reconnaissance system (JSLNBCRS). JBPDS also supports homeland defense operations. By December 2005, five chemical companies and three shipboard platforms will be fielded with JBPDS.

The M31E2 JBPDS-BIDS is an Army variant composed of an S788 lightweight multipurpose shelter mounted on a dedicated vehicle M1097 or M1113 Humvee with digital communication (FBCB2) and an on- board generator. It is a corps-level asset employed by a dedicated biological defense company to detect large-area biological attacks. The BIDS network provides the basis for warning and confirming that a biological attack has occurred.

The JBPDS has undergone numerous developmental tests and operational trials. In the end, the JBPDS still remains the top performer for biological detection.

NBC Protection

The M40/42-Series Protective Masks, a family of chemical- biological (CB) protective masks, provide respiratory, eye and face protection against chemical and biological agents, toxins, radioactive particles and battlefield contaminants. The M40/42 series replaces the M17, M25 and M9 masks. Features include an improved face seal for better protection and vision, flexibility at temperature extremes, increased useful life, weather and ozone resistance, improved soldier comfort, and ease of cleaning and maintenance.

M40/42-series masks are issued to soldiers, sailors and marines- the M42A2 to armored crews and the M40A1 to the balance of the force and U.S. Army Materiel Command surety sites.

The M40A1 and M42A2 masks have a silicone rubber face piece with an inturned peripheral face seal and binocular rigid-lens system. The basic mask, the M40A1, includes a face-mounted canister with NATO standard threads (gas and aerosol filter) that can be worn on either the left or right side; a drinking tube; and clear and tinted lens "outserts." When the canister is attached to a connection hose and equipped with a canister carrier, larger mask carrier and detachable microphone, the mask becomes the M42A2, which is used by all combat-vehicle crew personnel. The interchangeability also allows the repair of masks using a face piece assembly while retaining other existing, undamaged parts instead of a total replacement. This advance saves significant money and time.

M40A1 protective mask.

The M45 Chemical-Biological Protective Mask replaces the M24 and M49 mask system. The M45 mask supports the Land Warrior program, as well as Joint Special Operations Command requirements, and serves as the mask for Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine personnel who cannot be fitted with the standard M40/ M40A1, M42/M42A2 or MCU-2A/P protective masks.

The M45 mask provides protection to face, eyes, head, neck and respiratory tract from chemical-biological (CB) agents and radioactive particles without the aid of forced ventilation air, while maintaining compatibility with rotary-wing aircraft-sighting systems and night-vision devices. The M45 mask consists of close- fitting eye lenses, front and side voice-mitter for face-to-face and telephone communication, a microphone pass-through for aircraft communications, a drinking tube passthrough, a low-profile canister interoperable hose assembly to allow both hose and face-mounted configurations, interchangeable nose cups, a rubber face piece with an in-turned peripheral seal, and a second skin and hood.

Protection is provided by the agent-resistant face piece and second skin and hood. Although all three components protect the soldier against CB agents in gaseous form, the second skin and hood provide increased liquid agent protection. The Land Warrior configuration does not include the hose assembly, hood, canister baffle, microphone or microphone cable.

The mask is available in four sizes, and the interchangeable nose cups come in five different sizes to improve fit, comfort and vision. A different nose cup configuration is available for left- hand firing. Vision-corrective inserts can be fitted inside the face piece. Close-fitting eye lenses are shaped to improve peripheral vision and are compatible with most optical sighting and night- vision devices. Easy use of a drinking system permits intake of liquids.

The XM50 Joint Service General Purpose Chemical-Biological Protective Mask (JSGPM) program will provide the nextgeneration mask for all U.S.-joint service ground forces. Initial fielding is planned for fiscal year (FY) 2006.

The JSGPM requirements include meeting existing and new threats posed by both chemical andbiological agents and selected toxic industrial materials/chemicals that American forces may face in the future.

Other key performance parameters include a focus on reduced weight and bulk (smaller logistical footprint), compatibility with current and emerging equipment, improved reliability and an overall improved mission performance for soldiers, air-crews, marines and sailors. The cradle-to-grave acquisition approach will also focus on reducing the total ownership cost for all services by replacing the five existing general-purpose protective masks with this one item.

The system design goals call for significant improvement (50 percent) over the M40 in the areas of breathing resistance, weight and bulk, compatibility with current and future systems, maintenance (50 percent fewer parts), and agent and toxic industrial chemical filtration included in the filter design. Production is planned to run through FY 2015 for a U.S. acquisition objective of approximately 2.2 million masks.

The M43/M48 Chemical-Biological Aircraft Protective Mask provides CB protection for Apache aviators and was designed for compatibility with the AH-64 Apache helicopter's integrated helmet and display sighting system (IHADSS) and optical relay tube.

The M43 mask has a form-fitting butyl rubber face piece with lenses that mount close to the eyes; an integrally attached CB hood and a skull-type suspension system; an inhalation air distribution system for regulating the flow of air to the oronasal cavity; lenses and hood; and a pressure-compensated exhalation valve assembly for maintaining overpressure in the mask and hood. The overpressure is maintained by a portable blower/filter system that operates on battery or aircraft power and which filters air through a pair of C2 canisters.

The M43-type I mask has a notched right eye lens to allow interface with the helmet display unit of the IHADSS equipment. The mask was specifically designed for compatibility with the subsystems of the AH-64, and it provides protection for the head, face, eyes and respiratory systems against field concentrations of all chemical and biological agents in liquid and aerosol forms, and against toxins and radioactive fallout particles. Vision correction is accomplished via contact lenses. In addition, the mask provides external voice communications and a drinking tube assembly.

M43 is type-classified limited production-urgent and is currently fielded to all Apache pilots.

The M48 mask, chemical-biological Apache aviator, is an improved M43Al-series mask (M43-type I), that is used by Apache helicopter pilots. Currently, it is issued to Army Apache helicopter aviators, but it is anticipated that foreign military sales customers with Apache helicopters will procure M48 masks as well. The M48 mask replaces the existing M43 blower with a portable lightweight motor blower (LWMB) that provides blown and filtered air for breathing, lens defogging and head cooling, thus enabling the aircrew to perform its mission in a CB environment both inside and outside the aircraft.

During flight operations, the LWMB will be mounted in the Apache cockpit in the same location as the M43 blower and can be quickly removed during an emergency egress procedure. The M48 was type- classified Standard A in June 1996.

The Chemical-Biological Protective Shelter (CBPS) replaces the M51 collective protection shelter. It consists of a lightweight multipurpose shelter mounted on an expanded-capacity variant Humvee and a 300-square-foot airbeam supported soft shelter. The CBPS provides 72 hours of contamination-free, environmentally controlled working area for medical, combat service and combat service support personnel to obtain relief from the need to continuously wear chemical-biological individual protective clothing. Medical equipment and crew gear are transported inside the LMS and additional medical equipment is carried on a towed high-mobility trailer. An engineering change (EC) is being implemented to replace the hydraulic powered environmental support systems (Model 1) components and eliminate the need to use the Humvee engine. The EC will incorporate a self-powered electro-mechanical environmental support system (Model 2). A contract option has been exercised to procure 26 CBPS (Model 2) systems.

Chemically Protected Deployable Medical Support (CP DEPMEDS) is a containerized set that provides Army DEPMEDS combat support hospitals with a capability to sustain operations in an NBC environment. This modular system integrates environmentally controlled collective protection elements into the hospital to reduce casualties and enhance combat effectiveness. CP DEPMEDS uses M28 collective protection (CP) equipment, power, waste, and latrine management assets to provide an extended hospital capability.

The M20A1 Simplified Collective Protection Equipment (SCPE) provides a clean-air shelter for use against chemical and biological warfare agents and radioactive particles. The SCPE is an inflatable shelter which allows personnel to perform duties without wearing individual protection equipment. It can be used as a command, control, communication and intelligence shelter or as a soldier rest and relief facility.


The M291 Skin Decontamination Kit consists of a wallet-like carrying pouch containing six individual decontamination packets, enough to do three complete skin decontaminations. Each packet contains an applicator pad filled with decontamination powder. Operating temperatures range from minus 50 to 120 degrees Fahrenheit, and storage temperatures are from minus 60 to 160 degrees Fahrenheit. Users can decontaminate their skin completely through removal, absorption and neutralization of toxic agents with no long-term harmful effects. It is for external use only and may slightly irritate eyes or skin.

Decontamination is accomplished by applying a black decontamination powder contained in the applicator pad. Application to skin exposed to contamination is explained in the technical manual. The M291 is a fielded item and replaces the M258A1 skin decontamination kit.

The M100 Sorbent Decontamination System (SDS) is another decontaminating agent. It is a free-flowing, reactive, highly absorptive powder manufactured from aluminum oxide. The sorbent system was adopted in April 1999 after passing a rigorous peer review by a team of independent nongovernment evaluators and representatives from the Army, Navy and Air Force.

The M100 SDS replaces the Mils and MlSs currently used in spray- down operations associated with immediate decontamination. Each SDS consists of two 0.7pound packs of powdered reactive sorbent, two wash-mitt-type sorbent applicators, a case, straps and detailed instructions. An additional chemical-resistant mounting bracket is available. The system uses powdered sorbent to remove chemical agents from surfaces. Using the SDS decreases decontamination time and eliminates the need for water. Each SDS weighs 4.2 pounds and fits into a 3 1/4-inch x 6-inch x 14 1/2-inch space. The SDS mounting bracket is designed to fit Mil mounting holes, allowing easy replacement of the M11.

Future developments include toxicology testing on the sorbent system to assess its acceptability to the Food and Drug Administration for use in skin decontamination and on open wounds. In addition, the SDS program will consider providing capability for contamination avoidance by providing protection of sensitive equipment. The sorbent system will also be tested against biological contaminants.

DF200 Foam is a non-toxic, noncorrosive aqueous solution with enhanced physical stability for the rapid mitigation and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic hazardous materials. DF200 foam is primarily designed for suited personnel and their equipment. The foam formulation is based on a surfactant system to solubolize sparingly soluble agents and increase rates of reaction with nucleophilic reagents and mild oxidizing agents. The formulation also includes water-soluble polymers to enhance the physical stability of the foam. DF200 was developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

DF200 can be deployed as a foam or liquid spray, with foam application being preferable in most instances. Foam application provides an easy visual reference for application coverage, an expansion of formulation to enhance area coverage per gallon, and allows the formulation to adhere to surfaces and maintain required wet contact time with the agents being decontaminated.

Components for the DF200 foam are mixed in a 5-gallon bucket prior to use, then poured into the tanks and applied. The way the foam is applied can be modified by changing the tips on the 20-foot application hose. Once mixed, the foam solution has an 8-hour shelf life. The unmixed components for the foam solution have a 2- to 5- year shelf life.

DF200 is attractive for civilian and military applications for the following reasons: It can be used for both chemical and biological toxicants; it can be rapidly deployed; mitigation of agents can be accomplished in bulk, aerosol and vapor phases; there is minimal health and collateral damage; it requires minimal logistics support; it has minimal run-off of fluids and no lasting environmental impact; and is relatively inexpensive.

The Fixed-Site Decontamination System (FSDS) is a truck mounted, slip-on compressed air foam (CAF) unit. It fea- : tures an advanced, modular-designed component compartment with control panel and a self- contained rotary screw air compressor. Also known as the Falcon(TM), the FSDS is designed for durability, multiple use and low maintenance. The FSDS will fit in the standard bed of a pickup truck. A foam concentrate tank is built into the water tank, allowing for quick system activation and accurate foam application. Foam cell capacity is adjustable to fit specifications. Foam streams can be projected to 110 feet (34 meters) with a 1-\1/2-inch hand line and optional compressor. The FSDS is compressor-driven, with choice of gas or diesel engine.

The Multipurpose Decontamination System (MPDS) module is a follow- on development of the NATO high-pressure cleaning and decontamination system, Karcher HDS 1200 BK, which is being used worldwide by more than 40 armed forces. Because of its modular construction, the MPDS is of universal use, either as an independent single unit or incorporated in a more complex system. The main components of the module are integrated in an aluminum frame. These are: engine drive, high pressure pump and heat exchange unit.

The MPDS module operates at temperatures from -30C to +60 Celsius. For optimal functioning under arctic conditions, oil and air are preheated. Water is supplied through a self-suction siphon to a height of 4 meters from creeks, rivers, hydrants or water tanks. The supply with chemicals via the high-pressure pump is infinitely variable up to 60 liters per hour (16 gallons per hour). All functions are controlled by a central control panel. Temperature is variable from 0 to 210 Celsius and the unit can produce cold water, hot water and wet or dry steam.

An air-cooled diesel 4.2 kW engine drives the high-pressure pump, supplying the module with electric energy via a topped generator. The engine is automatically started by a maintenance-free battery. If necessary, it can also be started manually. The fully automatic burner system operates at reverse current and is heated by diesel fuel. The temperature control regulates the burner.

The Joint Service Sensitive Equipment Decontamination (JSSED) System will provide the ability to decontaminate chemical and biological agents from sensitive equipment (avionics, electronics, electrical) and environmental systems and equipment, aircraft and vehicle interiors (during flight/ground/shipboard operations) and associated cargo.

NBC Integration Into the Army Battle Command System (ABCS)

As part of Army transformation, the U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command (SBCCOM) develops capabilities and products for the ABCS to ensure soldier survivability, force protection and weapons of mass destruction situational awareness. The goal is to network all battlefield NBC sensors and instantly transmit NBC warnings and reports through the ABCS to minimize the effects of hostile NBC attacks or incidents on U.S. forces.

To accomplish this goal the project manager for nuclear, biological and chemical defense systems has two working projects: multipurpose integrated chemical agent alarm (MICAD) and the joint warning and reporting network QWARN) system.

MICAD interfaces with battlefield NBC sensors, such as the advanced chemical agent detection alarms and the M93A1 NBCRS (Fox). It remotely collects data from these sensors and automatically generates NBC messages that are then transmitted to the Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2) and maneuver control systems.

The second system, JWARN, is a software application that resides on the maneuver control system (MCS). This computer program receives NBC sensor data from the battlefield and allows the user to conduct detailed NBC analysis quickly and send this information out through the MCS to Army commanders and other service components, providing decisive information to maintain information superiority and maneuver dominance.

To enhance NBC integration in the future, the Army has initiated a project called the embedded common technical architecture, which will integrate the capabilities of MICAD and JWARN into a single- board computer at a significantly reduced cost. This effort is currently targeted to support the Stryker brigade combat; teams and will communicate through FBCB2.

The Multipurpose Integrated Chemical Agent Alarm (MICAD) is an integrated nuclear, biological and chemical detection warning and reporting system to be used in area warning, combat and armored vehicles, and tactical van and shelter mission profiles. MICAD automates the currently laborious NBC warning and reporting process throughout the battlefield. It automates the gathering of NBC contamination data from fielded NBC detectors and sensors and automatically formats and transmits alarms and reports up the chain of command throughout the battlefield.

MICAD provides a communications interface to NBC sensors, provides warnings of chemical and nuclear attacks throughout the battlefield and automatically generates NBC-I/NBC-4 reports over existing tactical communications. It operates with the M22 and an AN/ VDR-2 Radiac set. It interfaces with GPS vehicle navigation systems and modular collective protection equipment; it automates NBC report preparation (NBC-I/NBC-4) and transmission, and it communicates via single-channel ground and air radio system, FBCB2 or JWARN. Its flexible design allows its use in an area warning role with telemetry link radio.

The Joint Warning and Reporting Network (JWARN) is based on a commercial off-the-shelf software package developed by Bruhn New Tech. JWARN hazard pre-.. diction warning and reporting procedures for NBC attacks are based on standard NATO Allied Technical Publication (ATP)-45 procedures. JWARN was designed to allow warfighters to determine and display NBC hazard areas resulting from the use of NBC weapon systems and dissemination devices. JWARN has the ability to provide hazard estimates of onset times and duration of hazard. JWARN also provides database management to store information used to warn units and can generate the standard ATP-45 message set and overlays. The program operates in exercise and operational modes.


Smoke and other obscurants have been used in wars dating back to the ancient Greeks. On today's battlefield, smoke can counter new generations of smart weapons. Smoke is used as camouflage, as blinding smoke laid directly on enemy positions and as a decoy to confuse and mislead enemy forces. These basic smoke applications are used to increase survivability, buy maneuver time for the attacker and protect forward-assembly areas and high-priority rear areas for the defense.

Smoke particles scatter or absorb radiant energy used by troops and smart weapons for target acquisition and for weapon guidance and control. Smart weapon sensors operate in three main parts of the electromagnetic spectrum: visible, near-, midand far-infrared wavelengths, and millimeter wavelengths.

The most effective scattering smokes are aerosols that are the same size as the operating wavelengths of the sensor to be defeated. The best smoke for the visible spectrum may be transparent in the far-infrared area. The entire chain of electro-optical, infrared and millimeter-wave devices linking a smart weapon to a target is susceptible to smoke and other obscurants. In addition to absorbing light, some smokes emit heat, which can cover or clutter the thermal images of targets.

The reflection of laser or radar beams from smoke clouds can produce false targeting information for smart weapons, which can be blinded and defeated by smoke. Battlefield obscurants allow combatants to take advantage of technology overmatch. In Operation Desert Storm, U.S. ground forces used infrared-viewer technology at night to achieve dramatic results.

The Army uses several models of smokegeneration systems, including: the M56 Coyote, the M58 Wolf, the M157A2 Lynx and the M1059/ M1059A3 Lynx. In addition, the M6 countermeasure discharger provides self-screening protection to individual combat vehicles.

The M56 Coyote Smoke-Generation System (SGS) provides large-area obscuration in the visual and infrared spectra. It is a Humvee- mounted, large-area, smokegenerator system. In addition to providing enhanced spectrum coverage, the M56 system provides smoke generators with a new wheeled-vehicle platform. The system is mounted on the new expanded-capacity M113 Humvee and provides greater payload capacity and higher mobility for supporting smoke units.

Six M56 Coyotes form a smoke platoon. They support light and airborne maneuver units by disseminating smoke on the move or from stationary positions to defeat enemy sensors and smart munitions, such as tank thermal sights, guided munitions, directed energy weapons and other systems operating in the visible through far- infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The system is modular and uses a gas turbine engine to disseminate obscurants. The visual screening module is capable of vaporizing fog oil at a rate equal to the M157 smoke generator for up to 90 minutes.

The infrared screening module can disseminate particulate material to provide 30 minutes of screening. M56 program planners cite the expanding global use of infrared targeting and sighting devices for prompting development of the M56 Coyote, the Army's first large-area smoke system capable of generating visible and infrared blocking screens.

The M56 Coyote was type-classified "standard" in September 1994 and was followed by an initial production contract award for 296 systems in March 1995. First-article and production verification testing were successfully completed in September 1996. By the end of February 2000, 231 systems had been fielded to U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) and U.S. Army Reserve Command (USARC). Fielding continues to FORSCOM and USARC with a follow-on six-year contract.

A materiel change program to add a millimeter-wave module began in FY 2001. This program will provide extended spectral coverage to defeat threat weapon systems operating in the millimeter regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

The fielding of new M56 Coyotes pushed older M157 SGSs down to lower priority units. The last chemical unit with the aging M3A4 smoke-generation systems received M56 Coyotes in the first quarter of FY 2002.

The M58 Wolf Smoke-Generation System places the capabilities of the M56 on a derivative of the tracked M113 armor\ed personnel family. In addition to its current multispectral obscurant screening capabilities, planned materiel changes will allow the addition of a millimeter-wave (MMW) obscuration module, providing the capability to counter the threat arising from the wide proliferation of advanced visual and infrared sensors and future MMW sensors.

The chemical smoke platoon consists of seven M58 vehicles. Six of these are organized into two squads of three and the smoke platoon leader leads in the seventh vehicle. Missions include providing static and mobile visual and/or infrared screening (haze, blanket and curtain) to conceal ground maneuver forces, and supporting breaching and recovery operations.

The M58 Wolf was type-classified in August 1995. Following a successful production verification test, the Wolf received materiel release approval in the first quarter of FY 1998 and has since been successfully fielded. It was fielded to Army Reserve units, along with training, late in FY 2000.

The M157A2 Lynx Smoke-Generation System lets Army forces on the move produce large-area visual smoke screens. The system uses dual- pulse engines operating on standard Army fuels to produce large clouds of fog-oil vapor to defeat visual range observation and tracking methods, including lasers. Its major components are two M54A2 smoke generators, an air compressor assembly, a 120-gallon fog- oil tank, a fog-oil pump assembly and a remotecontrol panel. The entire package is mounted on the rear of an M1037/M1097 Humvee with an M284A1 mounting kit.

The M157A2 effort emerged through a post-Operation Desert Storm integrated product team approach that targeted the earlier M54 engine on the M157 system for both operational cost reduction and simplified logistics. Although the earlier M54 engines relied on unleaded gasoline only, the new M54A2 pulse jet engines burn any mid- viscosity Army fuel-including diesel, JP4, JP8 and motor gasoline- to produce a thick white smoke cloud. Each engine is capable of vaporizing 40 gallons of fog oil in a one-hour mission. The Army began fielding the M157A2 in July 1997 and completed all new production fielding just over a year later.

The M1059/M1059A3 Lynx Smoke-Generator Carrier is an M113A2 armored personnel carrier modified to transport a single M157 smoke- generating set. The two generators, mounted on the roof of the vehicle under armor, are remotely controlled from inside the vehicle. A 120-gallon fog oil tank located within the vehicle can generate smoke for approximately one hour without refueling. The Army initially fielded approximately 200 M1059 systems between 1988 and 1990. Many of these vehicle systems have now been converted to the M1059A3 configuration with the reliability improvement for selected equipment power upgrade.

The M6 Countermeasure Discharger is a four-tube smoke grenade launcher that enables combat vehicles to conceal themselves from hostile surveillance, target acquisition and weapon guidance systems. The M6 can fire all Q-STAG 401 conforming grenades (66 mm) and interfaces with vehicle integrated defense systems. The M6 is in production.

Copyright Association of the United States Army Oct 2005