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Stardust Found In Distant Planetary Systems

September 29, 2011

Astronomers of the University Jena find a stardust belt in extra-solar planetary systems

The debris discs are remnants of the formation of the planets. “We are dealing with enormous accumulations of chunks of matter which create dust when they collide”, Alexander Krivov says. This dust is of greatest importance for the astronomers, because it helps to draw conclusions about the planet formation. There are even two debris discs in our solar system, the asteroid belt and the Kuiper belt amongst whose bodies the dwarf planet Pluto belongs.

What makes the Jena discovery so special is the tremendous distance from our solar system to the stars with the debris discs. “These stars are hundreds of light years away from the Earth”, according to Krivov. The particular focus is on TrES-2 in the Draco constellation and XO-5 in the Lynx constellation. Planets orbiting these stars can only be detected with the help of the transit method. It sounds like a simple principle: The night sky is photographed in regular intervals. Special software then checks the brightness of the stars on the images. If, in regular intervals, there are differences in brightness it is likely that a planet passes between the star and its observers.

The astronomers found evidence for the stardust with the help of photometric analysis. At first the characteristics of the stars can be analyzed with it. If there are irregularities in the invisible infrared range, they point to the existence of stardust. Krivov says: “The dust is warmed up by the star and radiates heat. We see that radiation curve is above the radiation curve of the star as a clear sign of the existence of stardust.”

Professor Krivov draws an impressive comparison for the search of debris discs in the vastness of the universe: it is as if you would detect an ice-cream cooled down to minus 130 degrees with a heat detector in a 5,000 kilometer distance from Jena.

Alexander Krivov’s team of scientists concentrated its search for debris disc candidates on about 100 known extra-solar systems with transiting planets. Of these systems, they found 52 in the observational results of the US-American space telescope WISE published in April this year. The Jena scientists got lucky with two systems. As early as 1 June Alexander Krivov, Martin Reidemeister, Simone Fiedler, Dr. Torsten Löhne und Professor Ralph Neuhäuser submitted their paper to the science magazine ‘Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society’ for publication in the ‘Letters’ section. Meanwhile the paper has been published under the title ‘Debris disc candidates in systems with transiting planets’ (doi:10.1111/j.1745-3933.2011.01133.x).

Image Caption: Astronomers from Jena University found a stardust belt around the stars TrES-2 in the Draco constellation and XO-5 in the Lynx constellation. Credit: WISE Image Service

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Source: Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena