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Last updated on April 18, 2014 at 17:24 EDT

VLT Captures Photo of a Unique Galaxy

December 22, 2004

ESO — Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy of type SBb, seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc.

ESO PR Photo 35d/04, taken on the night of December 9 to 10, 2004 with the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (“VIMOS), a four-channel multiobject spectrograph and imager attached to the 8.2-m VLT Melipal telescope, shows that the real structure is much more complicated. NGC 1097 is indeed a most interesting object in many respects.

As this striking image reveals, NGC 1097 presents a centre that consists of a broken ring of bright knots surrounding the galaxy’s nucleus. The sizes of these knots – presumably gigantic bubbles of hydrogen atoms having lost one electron (HII regions) through the intense radiation from luminous massive stars – range from roughly 750 to 2000 light-years. The presence of these knots suggests that an energetic burst of star formation has recently occurred.

NGC 1097 is also known as an example of the so-called LINER (Low-Ionization Nuclear Emission Region Galaxies) class. Objects of this type are believed to be low-luminosity examples of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole.

There is indeed much evidence that a supermassive black hole is located at the very centre of NGC 1097, with a mass of several tens of million times the mass of the Sun. This is at least ten times more massive than the central black hole in our own Milky Way.

However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict “diet”: only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment.

A Turbulent Past

As can be clearly seen in the upper part of PR Photo 35d/04, NGC 1097 also has a small galaxy companion; it is designated NGC 1097A and is located about 42,000 light-years away from the centre of NGC 1097. This peculiar elliptical galaxy is 25 times fainter than its big brother and has a “box-like” shape, not unlike NGC 6771, the smallest of the three galaxies that make up the famous Devil’s Mask, cf. ESO PR Photo 12/04.

There is evidence that NGC 1097 and NGC 1097A have been interacting in the recent past.

Another piece of evidence for this galaxy’s tumultuous past is the presence of four jets – not visible on this image – discovered in the 1970′s on photographic plates. These jets are now believed to be the captured remains of a disrupted dwarf galaxy that passed through the inner part of the disc of NGC 1097.

Moreover, another interesting feature of this active galaxy is the fact that no less than two supernovae were detected inside it within a time span of only four years. SN 1999eu was discovered by Japanese amateur Masakatsu Aoki (Toyama, Japan) on November 5, 1999.

This 17th-magnitude supernova was a peculiar Type II supernova, the end result of the core collapse of a very massive star. And in the night of January 5 to 6, 2003, Reverend Robert Evans (Australia) discovered another Type II supernova of 15th magnitude.

Also visible in this very nice image which was taken during very good sky conditions – the seeing was well below 1 arcsec – are a multitude of background galaxies of different colours and shapes. Given the fact that the total exposure time for this three-colour image was just 11 min, it is a remarkable feat, demonstrating once again the very high efficiency of the VLT.

Technical Information

ESO PR Photo 35d/04 is an almost-true colour composite based on images made with the multi-mode VIMOS instrument on the 8.2-m Melipal (Unit Telescope 3) of ESO’s Very Large Telescope. Exposures were taken in three different wavebands which were associated to a given colour: R-band (centred around 652 nm; red), V (540 nm; green) and B (456 nm; blue). The images were taken on the night of December 9 to 10, 2004 in the presence of the President of the Republic of Chile, M. Ricardo Lagos. The observing conditions were very good (seeing well below 1 arcsec). The total exposure was 2.25 min in R, 3 min in V and 6 min in B. The scale is 0.205 arcsec/pix and the image covers a 7.7 x 6.6 arcmin2 region on the sky. All exposures were taken and pre-processed by ESO Paranal Science Operation astronomers. Additional image processing by Henri Boffin (ESO).

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