Possible Ice Volcano Found on Titan
LOS ANGELES — A recent flyby of Saturn’s hazy moon Titan by the Cassini spacecraft has revealed evidence of a possible volcano, which could be a source of methane in Titan’s atmosphere.
Images taken in infrared light show a circular feature roughly 30 kilometers (19 miles) in diameter that does not resemble any features seen on Saturn’s other icy moons. Scientists interpret the feature as an “ice volcano,” a dome formed by upwelling icy plumes that release methane into Titan’s atmosphere.
The findings appear in the June 9 issue of Nature.
“Before Cassini-Huygens, the most widely accepted explanation for the presence of methane in Titan’s atmosphere was the presence of a methane-rich hydrocarbon ocean,” said Dr. Christophe Sotin, distinguished visiting scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
“The suite of instruments onboard Cassini and the observations at the Huygens landing site reveal that a global ocean is not present,” said Sotin, a team member of the Cassini visual and infrared mapping spectrometer instrument and professor at the Universit© de Nantes, France.
“Interpreting this feature as a cryovolcano provides an alternative explanation for the presence of methane in Titan’s atmosphere. Such an interpretation is supported by models of Titan’s evolution,” Sotin said.
Titan, Saturn’s largest moon, is the only known moon to have a significant atmosphere, composed primarily of nitrogen, with 2 to 3 percent methane.
One goal of the Cassini mission is to find an explanation for what is replenishing and maintaining this atmosphere. This dense atmosphere makes the surface very difficult to study with visible-light cameras, but infrared instruments like the visual and infrared mapping spectrometer can peer through the haze. Infrared images provide information about both the composition and the shape of the area studied.
The highest resolution image obtained by the visual and infrared mapping spectrometer instrument covers an area 150 kilometers square (90 miles) that includes a bright circular feature about 30 kilometers (19 miles) in diameter, with two elongated wings extending westward. This structure resembles volcanoes on Earth and Venus, with overlapping layers of material from a series of flows.
“We all thought volcanoes had to exist on Titan, and now we’ve found the most convincing evidence to date. This is exactly what we’ve been looking for,” said Dr. Bonnie Buratti, team member of the Cassini visual and infrared mapping spectrometer at JPL.
In the center of the area, scientists clearly see a dark feature that resembles a caldera, a bowl-shaped structure formed above chambers of molten material.
The material erupting from the volcano might be a methane-water ice mixture combined with other ices and hydrocarbons. Energy from an internal heat source may cause these materials to upwell and vaporize as they reach the surface.
Future Titan flybys will help determine whether tidal forces can generate enough heat to drive the volcano, or whether some other energy source must be present.
Black channels seen by the European Space Agency’s Huygens probe, which piggybacked on Cassini and landed on Titan’s surface in January 2005, could have been formed by erosion from liquid methane rains following the eruptions.
Scientists have considered other explanations. They say the feature cannot be a cloud because it does not appear to move and it is the wrong composition.
Another alternative is that an accumulation of solid particles was transported by gas or liquid, similar to sand dunes on Earth. But the shape and wind patterns don’t match those normally seen in sand dunes.
The data for these findings are from Cassini’s first targeted flyby of Titan on Oct. 26, 2004, at a distance of 1,200 kilometers (750 miles) from the moon’s surface.
The visual and infrared mapping spectrometer instrument can detect 352 wavelengths of light from 0.35 to 5.1 micrometers. It measures the intensities of individual wavelengths and uses the data to infer the composition and other properties of the object that emitted the light; each chemical has a unique spectral signature that can be identified.
Forty-five flybys of Titan are planned during Cassini’s four-year prime mission. The next one is Aug. 22, 2005. Radar data of the same sites observed by the visual and infrared mapping spectrometer may provide additional information.
Image 1: Map of Titan in Infrared — On Oct. 26, 2004, the Cassini spacecraft flew over Saturn’s moon Titan at less than 1,200 kilometers (746 miles) at closest approach. Cassini acquired several infrared images with spatial resolution ranging from a few tens of kilometers (several miles) to 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) per pixel.
The visual and infrared mapping spectrometer instrument took images from visible wavelengths to the 5.1 micron wavelength. This figure shows the mosaic obtained at the 2.03 micron wavelength. Observations are centered on the hemisphere of Titan that points away from Saturn.
The left (inset) high-resolution image is 30 kilometers (19 miles) per pixel. It shows the site where the European Space Agency’s Huygens probe successfully landed on Jan. 14, 2005. The right inset shows a circular feature that scientists think is a volcano, which may be responsible for replenishing Titan’s methane atmosphere.
Titan’s diameter is 5,151 kilometers (3,200 miles), which is larger than Jupiter’s moon Callisto and smaller than another Jovian moon, Ganymede. Callisto has a diameter of 4,806 kilometers (2,986 miles) and Ganymede is 5,268 kilometers (3,273 miles).
Image 2: Titan Volcano in Several Infrared Wavelengths — Details of the circular feature, which scientists think is an ice volcano, which could be a source of methane in Titan’s atmosphere, show up at wavelengths larger than 1.3 microns (a micron is one-millionth of a meter; a meter is 39 inches).
The first six panels are images of the feature taken in six infrared windows. Images made up of two colors (ratio images) are represented in order to visualize compositional variations, which appear to be slight. The last panel is a color composite image (red, 2.75 micron; green, 2.0 micron; blue, 1.6 micron). These images were acquired with Cassini’s visual and infrared mapping spectrometer, designed to peer through Titan’s thick haze to the surface.
Titan, Saturn’s largest moon, is the only known moon to have a significant atmosphere, composed primarily of nitrogen, with methane (methane is about 2 to 3 percent) as the largest remaining component. One goal of the Cassini mission is to find an explanation for what is replenishing and maintaining this atmosphere. This dense atmosphere makes the surface very difficult to study with visible-light cameras, but infrared instruments like the visual and infrared mapping spectrometer can peer through the haze. Infrared images provide information about both the composition and the shape of the area studied.
These images were taken during Cassini’s Oct. 26, 2004, flyby of Titan.
Image 3: Geologic Map of Titan Volcano — From infrared images that show variations in brightness and texture, a geological map of the circular feature, thought to be a volcano, has been obtained using Cassini’s visual and infrared mapping spectrometer.
This geologic map shows that the circular feature has what appear to be several series of flows, as shown by the black lines. The flows represent episodes of activity on the volcano. A dark central pit, called a caldera, is similar to vents that appear above reservoirs of molten material on Earth’s volcanoes.
The colors on the map represent the brightness of features. Yellow and light green represent bright patches. Blue represents dark patches. Red represents mottled material. The yellow area is where the volcano lies.
These images were taken during Cassini’s Oct. 26, 2004, flyby of Titan.
On the Net:
Nature journal: http://www.nature.com/
Titan page: http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/home/index.cfm