March 3, 2010
MIT Student Honored For Work In Genomics And Linguistics
$30,000 Lemelson-MIT collegiate student prizes awarded to inventive students nationwide; four leading institutes celebrate 2010 winners
A scientific "Renaissance man" whose work spans the fields of mathematics, linguistics, biotechnology and polymer physics, Erez Lieberman-Aiden, graduate student at the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, has been named the winner of the prestigious $30,000 Lemelson-MIT Student Prize. Lieberman-Aiden, one of four 2010 $30,000 Lemelson-MIT Collegiate Student Prize winners announced today, was selected for the breadth and depth of his innovations.
Mapping the human genome in 3-D
Lieberman-Aiden's most recent invention is the "Hi-C" method for three-dimensional genome sequencing. It has been hailed as a revolutionary technology that will enable an entirely new understanding of cell state, genetic regulation and disease. Developed together with postdoctoral student Nynke van Berkum of UMass Medical School, and their advisors Eric Lander and Job Dekker, Hi-C makes it possible to create global, three-dimensional portraits of whole genomes as they fold. Three dimensional genome sequencing is a major advance in solving the mystery of how the human genome "“ which is two meters and three billion chemical letters long "“ fits into the tiny nucleus of a cell.
Applied to the human genome, the technology enabled Lieberman-Aiden, van Berkum and their team to make two significant discoveries. First, they found that the genome is organized into separate active and inactive compartments; chromosomes weave in and out of these compartments, turning the individual genes along their length on and off. When they examined this process more closely, they found evidence that the genome adapts into a never-before-seen state called a fractal globule. This allows cells to pack DNA extraordinarily tightly without knotting, and to easily access genes when the information they contain is needed.
Technological, mathematical and linguistic breakthroughs
Lieberman-Aiden's pioneering work on genome sequencing is the latest in a long line of innovations. In addition to three-dimensional genome sequencing, he also invented the iShoe, a sensor-laden shoe insole that enables early diagnosis and rehabilitation of deteriorating balance for the elderly. iShoe technology can help reduce the risk of broken hips due to falling, which often results in death for senior citizens. Lieberman-Aiden and his team are currently engaged in clinical trials of the iShoe technology.
Lieberman-Aiden and Harvard mathematics professor Martin Nowak developed evolutionary graph theory, a field which lies at the interface between graph theory, mathematics and evolutionary biology. The theory provides a quantitative language to describe replication of entities "“ such as organisms or ideas "“ along networks, and can be applied to a variety of fields ranging from cancer biology to social networks.
Working with Jean-Baptiste Michel, Lieberman-Aiden also made major contributions to the study of the evolution of language. The duo demonstrated that languages follow the laws of natural selection in predictable ways, leading to specific equations that describe and predict how irregular verbs are disappearing from the English language and gradually transforming into regular verbs. They showed that, like radioactive atoms, irregular verbs have a half-life and that the half-life of a verb is proportional to the square root of its frequency.
Creative networks drive success
Mentorship drives much of Lieberman-Aiden's success and innovative cross-disciplinary career. He stresses the importance of supportive mentors and the need for freedom to explore one's passions. "One of the most powerful things a mentor can do is to point you to things you're good at and give you productive ways to use those skills; it's also crucial that they encourage you to seek out areas outside of your comfort zone," Lieberman-Aiden claims. "One of the greatest lessons I apply to my work and share with my own mentees is that from big mistakes, you learn the ingredients for big successes."
Lemelson-MIT collegiate student prizes
In addition to Lieberman-Aiden's pioneering work, the other winners of the annual $30,000 Lemelson-MIT Collegiate Student Prize will be announced today at their respective universities:
* Lemelson-MIT Caltech Student Prize winner Heather Agnew contributed to the development of an innovative technique that creates inexpensive, stable, highly reliable biochemical compounds that have the potential to replace antibodies used in many standard diagnostic tests. http://www.lemelson-prize.caltech.edu/
* Lemelson-MIT Illinois Student Prize winner Jonathan Naber and the Illini Prosthetics Team developed an affordable, durable, extremely functional prosthetic arm for people in underdeveloped countries, made from recycled materials. http://www.30kprize.illinois.edu/
* Lemelson-MIT Rensselaer Student Prize winner Kayvan Rafiee created a new method for manufacturing and using graphene to store hydrogen which has the potential to lead to more affordable hydrogen-powered cars and trucks. http://www.eng.rpi.edu/lemelson/
ABOUT THE $30,000 LEMELSON-MIT STUDENT PRIZE
The $30,000 Lemelson-MIT Student Prize is awarded annually to an MIT senior or graduate student who has created or improved a product or process, applied a technology in a new way, redesigned a system, or demonstrated remarkable inventiveness in other ways. A distinguished panel of MIT alumni including scientists, technologists, engineers and entrepreneurs chooses the winner.
ABOUT THE LEMELSON-MIT PROGRAM
Celebrating innovation, inspiring youth
The Lemelson-MIT Program recognizes the outstanding inventors and innovators transforming our world, and inspires young people to pursue creative lives and careers through innovation.
Jerome H. Lemelson, one of U.S. history's most prolific inventors, and his wife Dorothy founded the Lemelson-MIT Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1994. It is funded by The Lemelson Foundation and administered by the School of Engineering. The Foundation sparks, sustains and celebrates innovation and the inventive spirit. It supports projects in the U.S. and developing countries that nurture innovators and unleash invention to advance economic, social and environmentally sustainable development. To date The Lemelson Foundation has donated or committed more than U.S. $150 million in support of its mission.
Image Caption: Erez Lieberman-Aiden, graduate student in the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, has been named the winner of the 2010 $30,000 Lemelson-MIT Student Prize. Image courtesy of Lemelson-MIT Program
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