The Campolina is a breed of gaited horse that was developed by and named after Cassiano Campolina in 1870. He started the breed using a black mare of Barb ancestry and a pure bred Andalusian stallion, who produced a foal named Monarca. This horse is now considered to be the foundation stallion for the entire breed. The original herd was bred by using other breeds including the Clydesdale and Holsteiner, as well as the Mangalarga Marchador in later years.
The standard for this breed was created in 1934, after the herdbook was closed, and an organization now known as the Campolina Breeders Association was created to formally organize the breed. There are now about 85,000 registered members of this breed. It is used for pleasure riding as well as dressage and driving competitions.
The Campolina varies in height between 14.1 and 16.2 hands and weighs between 770 and 1,320 pounds depending upon the sex. The most popular color of this breed is silver-grey, which is thought to reflect the original color of the first member of this breed, but it can also be bay, buckskin, dun, or pinto in color. The breed standard allows for white markings on members of this breed, but the markings do not improve or weaken their status in official judging. Its head is elegant and shaped like a trapezoid, with a dark muzzle and expressive eyes. The standard calls for horses with curved necks, strong chests, long legs, and slightly long back. Because the physical standards of this breed have changed, changes can be seen in its gait. The standard is still evolving, with proposed changes including the shape of the head, mouth, and nasal bones.
Image Caption: This image shows the improved “lightness” of motion enabled by morphological changes in this breed. Credit: Amazona01/Wikipedia (CC BY-SA 3.0)