The Dusky Grouper (Epinephelus marginatus), is the best known grouper of the Mediterranean Sea and North Africa coast. It can be found at the Mediterranean, the African west coast and the coast of Brazil. It is rare at the western Indian ocean, Uruguay, Argentina, north of France and British Islands. It is a solitary fish. It lives alone in rocks, at depths from the coast to 1000 feet, but it’s rare to find it below 200 feet. It has a barometric distribution, were the younger specimens are found near the cost and the older ones at the depths.
The Dusky Grouper has a big body with a big mouth. One long dorsal fin and a rounded tail. Its color varies from brown to green depending on the season and the age. It is green during its juvenile phase. The adult is upper brown with yellow spots and lower yellow. It is normally 20 to 40 inches long, and weighs between 6.5 to 22 pounds. Although it can grow up to 60 inches in length and 130 pounds in weight.
It is a protogynous hermaphrodite, i.e. the young are predominantly female but transform into males as they grow larger. The reproduction normally takes place between the summer months. It feed mainly on other fish, crabs and octopus. It is very greedy and one of the major predators in the Mediterranean sea.