Enterococcus faecalis

Enterococcus faecalis ““ formerly classified as part of the Group D Streptococcus system ““ is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. It is one of the main constituents of some probiotic food supplements. E. faecalis can cause life-threatening infections in humans. It is frequently found in root canal-treated teeth in prevalence values ranging from 30% to 90% of the cases.

It is a non-motile, facultatively anaerobic microbe that ferments glucose without gas production. It produces a reduction of litmus milk but does not liquefy gelatin. Growth on nutrient broth is consistent with being facultatively anaerobic. It can cause endocarditis, as well as bladder, prostate, and epididymal infections.

E. faecalis is resistant to many commonly used antimicrobial agents. Resistance to vancomycin is becoming more common. Vancomycin resistant enterococci are usually treated with linezolid. Propolis may be effective in the treatment of VRE.