Formosan Rock Macaque, Macaca cyclopis

The Formosan Rock Macaque (Macaca cyclopis), Formosan Rock Monkey, or Taiwanese Macaque, is a macaque endemic to the island of Taiwan and has been introduced to Japan. Besides humans, these monkeys are only native primates living in Taiwan.

These mammals measure 50 to 60 centimeters and weigh 5 to 12 kilograms, generally the females are smaller. Their tails are moderately long and they measure 26 to 45 centimeters. This macaque is brown or gray in coloration. The monkey has specialized pouch-like cheeks, permitting it to temporarily hoard its food. The gathered morsels are eaten some time later, in safe surroundings.

Among the 22 species of this genus that can be found in southern and eastern Asia as well as northwestern Africa, the Formosan Macaque is native to the island of Taiwan.

They live in mixed coniferous-hardwood temperate forest, in addition to bamboo and grassland at 328 to 11,812 feet. The social structure of macaques is usually characterized as often occurring as large and stable multimale-multifamily troop. It is considered to be female-bonded which is much like that of other species in the genus Macaca.

They are diurnal, arboreal, and terrestrial. Most often they stay in the trees and less on the ground. They rest in the forest and search for food in the grassland. The diet is made up mostly of fruits, tender leaves, buds, grass stems, insects, bird eggs, and snails.

It gives birth to a single offspring. During estrus, the perineum of the female swells at the base of the tail and there is also swelling along the thighs. Their mating season is from October to January. The gestation period may last about 5 and a half months. The females give birth to their babies between the spring and the summer. Nursing is entirely dependent on the females. The young are carried in the mothers arms for 2 to 3 months. Not until one years old will the young be fully separated from their parents carrying.

Image Caption: Formosan macaque, Endemic animals of Taiwan. Credit: KaurJmeb/Wikipedia (CC BY-SA 2.0)