The olive baboon (Papio anubis), also called the Anubis baboon, is a baboon from the Old World monkey family. Its name comes from the Egyptian god Anubis.
The olive baboon has the largest range area of all baboons, extending south from Mali to Ethiopia and to Tanzania. Isolated populations are also in some mountainous regions of the Sahara. It inhabits savannahs, steppes and forest areas.
The skin of the Olive Baboon is olive-green colored with a black face. It lives in mixed gender social groups with complex social behaviors. It is an omnivore, eating fruits, grasses, blooms, roots, insects and small vertebrate animals. Males weigh around 55.12 lb (25 kg) and females around 30.86 lb (14 kg). They have some geographic variation in average size. The male measures 29.92 in (760 mm). The tail adds an additional 22.05 in (560 mm). Females are smaller, with an average head and body measurement of 23.62 in (600 mm) and an average tail length of 18.9 (480 mm). Males have large canine teeth, whereas the teeth of the females are much smaller. Pelage is characteristically a dark, olive-gray. Hairs with 1 to 2 alternating pairs of black and yellow-brown rings produce this overall color. Males possess a large mane, restricted to the anterior portion of the body. Females lack a mane.