The Tarpan, Equus ferus ferus, is an extinct species of Eurasian wild horse. The last specimen died in captivity in Ukraine in 1918 or 1919. The Tarpan was first described in 1774 by Johann Friedrich Gmelin, who had first seen the horse in 1769 in the region of Bobrovsk, near Voronezh.
Polish farmers often crossed the tarpan with their domestic horses. The result was a small horse breed, the konik. Koniks and other similar horse breeds are now being used to bring back the tarpan from extinction. The Hucul pony is now thought to be the direct descendant of the tarpan. It is further thought that all domesticated horses are now descendants of the tarpan as well. Some taxonomists consider them to be part of the same species.