The Tortricidae or tortix moths are a family of the Lepidoptera. The typical resting posture is with the wings folded back producing the rather rounded profile.
It is a large family with over 6,000 species described. Many of these are economically important pests, including (in Europe):
- Summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana)
- Fruit tree tortrix moth (Archips podana)
- Rose leaf roller (Archips rosana)
- Argyrotaenia ljungiana, a pest on vines, maize and fruit trees
- Peach moth (Cydia molesta)
- Codling moth (Cydia pomonella)
- Plum fruit moth (Cydia funebrana)
- Pea moth (Cydia nigricana)
- Chestnut and acorn moth (Cydia splendana)
- Vine moth (Lobesia botrana)
- Barred fruit tree tortrix moth (Pandemis cerasana)
- Long-palped tortrix (Vine leaf roller) (Sparganothis pilleriana)
- Bud moth (Spilonota ocellana)
The Codling Moth is the species which causes worm-holes in apples. It has been accidentally spread from its original range in Europe and is now found in North and South America, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand wherever apples are grown. Control has required the use of the harshest available insecticides – historically lead arsenate and DDT were used. These chemicals brought considerable environmental dangers, and in any case the insect gradually developed resistance to them. Currently organophosphate sprays are favored, timed carefully to catch the hatching larvae before they can bore into the fruit.