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2007-01-26 12:00:51

By Lee, Chiapyng; Kuo, Yu-Lin Refractory metal nitride thin films have been widely developed as the diffusion barriers for the aluminum or copper interconnects in integrated circuits. This study reviewed the evolution of diffusion barriers in copper metallization. First, materials characteristics and electrical properties of varions diffusion barriers, titanium nitride (TiN), tantalum nitride (TaN), and titanium zirconium nitride (TiZrN), were examined. These diffusion barriers were...

2005-07-11 23:10:00

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. -- Using a technique called ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have created an improved catalyst for removing smelly sulfur-containing compounds from gasoline and other fossil fuels. The improved catalyst is a form of molybdenum disulfide, most commonly recognized as the black lubricant used to grease automobiles and machinery. Molybdenum disulfide is made of long flat layers of molybdenum metal atoms sandwiched above and...

2004-11-27 03:00:10

EXPANDED ABSTRACT KEY WORDS: * superoxide dismutase * reactive oxygen species Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)3 is a nuclear-encoded antioxidant enzyme that localizes to the mitochondria (1). Increased expression of MnSOD suppresses cancer phenotypes in a large number of human and murine tumors (2). MnSOD can also regulate tumor formation in MnSOD-overexpressing and MnSOD-deficient mice by modulating apoptotic and proliferation pathways in situ (3,4). The presence of MnSOD in...


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2005-05-25 17:01:27

Sulfur (or Sulphur; see spelling below) is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol S and atomic number 16. It is an abundant, tasteless, odorless, multivalent non-metal. Sulfur, in its native form, is a yellow crystaline solid. In nature, it can be found as the pure element or as sulfide and sulfate minerals. It is an essential element for life and is found in several amino acids. Its commercial uses are primarily in fertilizers but it is also widely used in gunpowder,...

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Word of the Day
snash
  • To talk saucily.
  • Insolent, opprobrious language; impertinent abuse.
This word is Scots in origin and probably imitative.